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Table 2 Energy expenditure (EE) estimates for different group using SPA

From: Variables influencing wearable sensor outcome estimates in individuals with stroke and incomplete spinal cord injury: a pilot investigation validating two research grade sensors

  EE estimates from standard algorithm.
Mean [95% CI [LB, UB] in kCals / min
Kruskal Wallis test statistics Effect size
Activity/Group A arm (right) A waist (right) A ankle (right) Metria (M arm (left)) Cosmed K4B2 χ2, p, mean rank [device, cosmed] E2 =
\( \left\{\frac{x2}{\frac{\left({N}^2-1\right)}{\left(N+1\right)}}\right\} \)
Lying
Healthy 0.07
[−.04, .17]*
0.03
[−.01, .06]*
0.06
[−.01, .13]*
2.04
[1.82, 2.26] †
3.2
[2.67, 3.72]
A arm: 14.3, p < .001, [5.5, 15.5]
A waist: 14.3, p < .001, [5.5, 15.5]
A ankle: 14.3, p < .001, [5.5, 15.5]
M arm: 13.7, p < .001, [5.6, 15.4]
A arm: .75
A waist: .75
A ankle: .75
M arm: .72
iSCI .001
[.001, .001]*
.001
[.001, .001]*
.001
[.001, .001]*
1.86
[1.42, 2.31]
1.59
[1.26, 1.91]
A arm: 11.3, p = .001, [4.5, 12.5]
A waist: 11.3, p = .001, [4.5, 12.5]
A ankle: 11.3, p = .001, [4.5, 12.5]
M arm: 1.1, p = .3, [9.7,7.2]
A arm: .75
A waist: .75
A ankle: .75
M arm: .07
Stroke (L) .002
[.00, .006]*
.118
[−.183, .421]*
.02
[−.03, .015]*
1.65
[1.30,1.99]
1.59
[1.18, 1.99]
A arm: 8.3, p = .004, [3.5, 9.5]
A waist: 8.3, p = .004, [3.5, 9.5]
A ankle: 8.3, p = .004, [3.5, 9.5]M arm: 0.4, p = .5, [7.1, 5.8]
A arm: .76
A waist: .76
ankle: .76
M arm: .04
Stroke (R) .001
[.001, .001]*
.001
[.001, .001]*
.001
[.001, .001]*
1.59
[1.13, 2.05]
1.65
[.99, 2.30]
A arm: 5.3, p = .02, [2.5, 6.5]
A waist: 5.3, p = .02, [2.5, 6.5]
A ankle: 5.3, p = .02, [2.5, 6.5]
M arm: 0.0, p = .99, [4.5, 4.5]
A arm: .76
A waist: .76
A ankle: .76
M arm: .00
Sitting
Healthy .031
[−.003, .070]*
.003
[.001, .005]*
.009
[−.006, .024]*
2.33
[1.94, 2.73]
2.08
[1.82, 2.35]
A arm: 14.3, p < .001, [5.5, 15.5]
A waist: 14.3, p < .001, [5.5, 15.5]
A ankle: 14.3, p < .001, [5.5, 15.5]
M arm: 1.3, p = .3, [12.0,9.0]
A arm: .75
A waist: .75
A ankle: .75
M arm: .07
iSCI .04
[−.025, .120]*
.003
[−.001, .008]*
.001
[.001, .001]*
1.92
[1.47, 2.37]
1.48
[1.25, 1.71]
A arm: 11.3, p = .001, [4.5, 12.5]
A waist: 11.3, p = .001, [4.5, 12.5]
A ankle: 11.3, p = .001, [4.5, 12.5]
M arm: 2.8, p = .1, [10.5,6.5]
A arm: .75
A waist: .75
A ankle: .75
M arm: .20
Stroke (L) .05
[−.054, .152]*
.050
[−.065, .166]*
.017
[−.015, .05]*
1.64
[1.32,1.95]
1.31
[1.04, 1.57]
A arm: 8.3, p = .004, [3.5, 9.5]
A waist: 8.3, p = .004, [3.5, 9.5]
A ankle: 8.3, p = .004, [3.5, 9.5]
M arm: 2.8, p = .1, [8.25,4.75]
A arm: .76
A waist: .76
A ankle: .76
M arm: .26
Stroke (R) .001
[.001, .001]*
.001
[.001, .001]*
.001
[.001, .001]*
1.58
[1.16, 1.99] †
1.19
[.96, 1.43]
A arm: 5.3, p = .02, [2.5, 6.5]
A waist: 5.3, p = .02, [2.5, 6.5]
A ankle: 5.3, p = .02, [2.5, 6.5]
M arm: 4.1, p = .04, [6.2, 2.7]
A arm: .76
A waist: .76
A ankle: .76
M arm: .58
Standing
Healthy .015
[−.007, .038]*
.002
[.002, .003]*
.004
[.00, .008]*
2.11
[1.68, 2.52]
1.94
[1.65, 2.23]
A arm: 14.3, p < .001, [5.5, 15.5]
A waist: 14.3, p < .001, [5.5, 15.5]
A ankle: 14.3, p < .001, [5.5, 15.5]
M arm: .28, p = .6, [11.2, 9.8]
A arm: .75
A waist: .75
A ankle: .75
M arm: .01
iSCI .022
[−.026, .072]*
.001
[.001, .001]*
.001
[.001, .001]*
2.17
[1.32, 3.02]
1.74
[1.34, 2.13]
A arm: 11.3, p = .001, [4.5, 12.5]
A waist: 11.3, p = .001, [4.5, 12.5]
A ankle: 11.3, p = .001, [4.5, 12.5]
M arm: .54, p = .5, [9.3,7.6]
A arm: .75
A waist: .75
A ankle: .75
M arm: .04
Stroke (L) 1.53
[−.24, .55]*
.002
[.00, .003]*
.011
[−.015, .037]*
1.70
[1.33,2.08]
1.55
[1.11,1.97]
A arm: 8.3, p = .004, [3.5, 9.5]
A waist: 8.3, p = .004, [3.5, 9.5]
A ankle: 8.3, p = .004, [3.5, 9.5]
M arm: .9, p = .3, [7.5, 5.5]
A arm: .76
A waist: .76
A ankle: .76
M arm: .08
Stroke (R) .001
[.001, .001]*
.001
[.001, .001]*
.001
[.001, .001]*
1.6
[1.17, 2.02]
1.42
[.81, 2.04]
A arm: 5.3, p = .02, [2.5, 6.5]
A waist: 5.3, p = .02, [2.5, 6.5]
A ankle: 5.3, p = .02, [2.5, 6.5]
M arm: .7, p = .4, [5.2, 3.7]
A arm: .76
A waist: .76
A ankle: .76
M arm: .11
50 steps walk
Healthy 2.02
[1.54, 2.50]*
1.78
[1.29, 2.26]*
4.21
[3.38, 5.03]
2.16
[1.89, 2.44] †
2.98
[2.44, 3.52]
A arm: 7.0, p = .008, [7.0, 14.0]
A waist: 10.1, p = .001, [6.3, 14.7]
A ankle: 5.5, p = .02, [13.6, 7.4]
M arm: 7.0, p = .008, [7.0,14.0]
A arm: .37
A waist: .53
A ankle: .29
M arm: .37
iSCI 1.26
[.65, 1.88]*
.64
[.18, 1.09]*
2.71
[.35, 5.07]
2.71
[.79, 4.63] †
3.52
[2.47, 4.57]
A arm: 9.3, p = .002, [4.8, 12.3]
A waist: 11.3, p = .001, [4.5, 12.5]
A ankle: 2.2, p = .14, [6.7, 10.2]
M arm: 5.8, p = .02, [5.6,11.4]
A arm: .62
A waist: .75
A ankle: .14
M arm: .39
Stroke (L) 2.65
[.63, 4.67]
1.67
[−.58, 3.93]
5.75
[3.38, 8.12]*
1.77
[1.26,2.29] †
2.78
[1.92, 3.65]
A arm: .6, p = .4, [5.7, 7.3]
A waist: 1.3, p = .3, [5.3, 7.6]
A ankle: 6.6, p = .01, [9.1, 3.8]
M arm: 6.5, p = .01, [3.8, 9.1]
A arm: .06
A waist: .11
A ankle: .60
M arm: .41
Stroke (R) 2.83
[.67, 4.98]
2.0
[.93, 3.06]
2.97
[.04, 5.90]
1.91
[.95, 2.86]
2.74
[1.72, 3.76]
A arm: .1, p = .8, [4.2, 4.7]
A waist: .7, p = .4, [3.7, 5.2]
A ankle: .1, p = .8, [4.2, 4.7]
M arm: 2.1, p = .15, [3.2, 5.7]
A arm: .01
A waist: .11
A ankle: .01
M arm: .30
6 min walk test
Healthy 5.9
[3.85, 7.95]
6.22
[4.23, 8.20]
9.73
[8.36, 11.1]*
5.98
[5.21, 6.75]
6.63
[5.78, 7.48]
A arm: .3, p = .6, [9.8, 11.2]
A waist: .02, p = .9, [10.3, 10.7]
A ankle: 11.1, p = .001, [14.9, 6.1]
M arm: 1.0, p = .3, [9.2, 11.8]
A arm: .01
A waist: .00
A ankle: .58
M arm: .05
iSCI 2.07
[.46, 3.68]*
.78
[.13,1.43]*
2.05
[.46, 3.65]*
5.32
[3.11, 7.54]
4.94
[3.3, 6.57]
A arm: 6.4, p = .012, [5.5, 11.5]
A waist: 11.3, p = 0.001, [4.5, 12.5]
A ankle: 6.3, p = .012, [5.5, 11.5]
M arm: .04, p = .8, [8.7,8.2]
A arm: .42
A waist: .75
A ankle: .42
M arm: .00
Stroke (L) 6.11
[1.42, 10.81]
4.69
[−1.91, 10.58]
9.54
[4.97, 14.11]
5.37
[2.65,8.10]
5.81
[1.97,9.66]
A arm: .03, p = .9, [6.3, 6.7]
A waist: 1.3, p = .3, [5.3, 7.7]
A ankle: 4.3, p = .04, [8.7, 4.3]
M arm: .03, p = .9, [6.3, 6.7]
A arm: .00
A waist: .11
A ankle: .39
M arm: .00
Stroke (R) 6.96
[4.16, 9.76]
6.10
[4.03, 8.17]
6.76
[4.01, 9.52]
4.56
[3.35, 5.77]
6.27
[4.17, 8.36]
A arm: .1, p = .8, [4.7, 4.2]
A waist: .1, p = .8, [4.7, 4.2]
A ankle: .1, p = .8, [4.7, 4.2]
M arm: 3, p = .08, [3.0, 6.0]
A arm: .01
A waist: .01
A ankle: .01
M arm: .43
Multi-sit-to-stand
Healthy 7.92
[5.91, 9.93]
6.02
[3.91, 8.13]
.151
[−.160, .462]*
3.55
[2.94, 4.16] †
6.79
[5.00, 8.59]
A arm: .7, p = .4, [11.6, 9.4]
A waist: .8, p = .4, [9.3, 11.7]
A ankle: 14.3, p < .001, [5.5,15.5]
M arm: 9.1, p = .002, [6.5, 14.5]
A arm: .04
A waist: .04
A ankle: .75
M arm: .48
iSCI 4.64
[2.4, 6.9]
1.53
[.66, 2.39]*
.05
[−.011, .104]*
3.33
[1.35, 5.31]
3.82
[3.19, 4.44]
A arm: .5, p = .5, [9.4, 7.6]
A waist: 9.9, p = .002, [4.7, 12.2]
A ankle: 11.3, p = .001, [4.5, 12.5]
M arm: 2.8, p = .1, [6.5,10.5]
A arm: .04
A waist: .66
A ankle: .75
M arm: .19
Stroke (L) 6.56
[3.2, 9.92]
5.45
[1.53, 9.38]
.11
[.00, .22]*
2.03
[1.58,2.48] †
4.95
[2.64, 7.26]
A arm: .9, p = .3, [7.5, 5.5]
A waist: .00, p = .99, [6.5, 6.5]
A ankle: 8.3, p = .004, [3.5, 9.5]
M arm: 7.4, p = .006, [3.7, 9.3]
A arm: .08
A waist: .00
A ankle: .76
M arm: .67
Stroke (R) 2.89
[.46, 5.33]
5.37
[2.52, 8.21]
.22
[−.36, .80]
2.1
[1.27, 2.93] †
4.75
[3.32, 6.19]
A arm: 3, p = .08, [3.0,6.0]
A waist: .3, p = .6, [5.0, 4.0]
A ankle: 5.3, p = .02, [2.5, 6.5]
M arm: 5.3, p = .02, [2.5, 6.5]
A arm: .43
A waist: .05
A ankle: .76
M arm: .76
  1. †p < 0.05 (Metria-IH1); *p < 0.016 (ActiGraph)