Skip to main content

Table 3 Metabolic equivalent (MET) estimates for different group using SPA

From: Variables influencing wearable sensor outcome estimates in individuals with stroke and incomplete spinal cord injury: a pilot investigation validating two research grade sensors

Activity/Group  MET estimates from standard algorithm.
Mean [95% CI [LB, UB]
Kruskal Wallis test statistics Effect size
A arm (right) A waist (right) A ankle (right) Metria (M arm (left)) Cosmed K4B2 χ2, p, mean rank [device, cosmed] E2 =
\( \left\{\frac{x^2}{\frac{\left({N}^2-1\right)}{\left(N+1\right)}}\right\} \)
Lying
Healthy 1.03
[0.97, 1.08]*
1.02
[0.99, 1.00]*
1.03
[1.00, 1.05]*
1.79
[1.52, 2.05] †
2.33
[1.86, 2.79]
A arm: 9.7, p = .002, [6.5, 14.5]
A waist: 9.7, p = .002, [6.5, 14.5]
A ankle: 9.7, p = .002, [6.5, 14.5]
M arm: 5.4, p = .02, [7.5, 13.5]
A arm: .51
A waist: .51
A ankle: .51
M arm: .28
iSCI 1.00
[.001, .001]*
1.00
[.001, .001]*
1.00
[.001, .001]*
1.19
[1.06, 1.31]
1.12
[0.94, 1.30]
A arm: 3.2, p = .07, [6.5, 10.5]
A waist: 3.2, p = .07, [6.5, 10.5]
A ankle: 3.2, p = .07, [6.5, 10.5]
M arm: .71, p = .4, [9.5,7.5]
A arm: .21
A waist: .21
A ankle: .21
M arm: .05
Stroke (L) 1.00
[.001,.001]
1.01
[0.97, 1.07]
1.00
[.001,.001]
1.13
[0.94, 1.33]
1.07
[1.01, 1.13]
A arm: 4.2, p = .04, [4.5, 8.5]
A waist: 1.8, p = .2, [5.1, 7.8]
A ankle: 4.2, p = .04, [4.5, 8.5]
M arm: 0.03, p = .9, [6.7, 6.3]
A arm: .38
A waist: .16
A ankle: .38
M arm: .00
Stroke (R) 1.00
[.001, .001]*
1.00
[.001, .001]*
1.00
[.001, .001]*
1.14
[1.02, 1.27]
1.16
[.76, 1.57]
A arm: 1.5, p = .2, [3.5, 5.5]
A waist: 1.5, p = .2, [3.5, 5.5]
A ankle: 1.5, p = .2, [3.5, 5.5]
M arm: 0.1, p = .8, [4.2, 4.7]
A arm: .21
A waist: .21
A ankle: .21
M arm: .01
Sitting
Healthy 1.00
[1.00, 1.01]*
1.00
[1.00, 1.01]*
1.00
[1.00, 1.01]*
2.03
[1.66, 2.38]
1.60
[1.28, 1.92]
A arm: 10.0, p = .002, [6.5, 14.5]
A waist: 10.4, p = .001, [6.5, 14.5]
A ankle: 10.4, p = .001, [6.5, 14.5]
M arm: 3.6, p = .06, [13.0,8.0]
A arm: .53
A waist: .55
A ankle: .55
M arm: .19
iSCI 1.00
[1.00, 1.01]
1.00
[1.00, 1.01]
1.00
[1.00, 1.01]
1.22
[1.10, 1.34]
1.05
[0.88, 1.21]
A arm: .8, p = .4, [7.5, 9.5]
A waist: .8, p = .4, [7.5, 9.5]
A ankle: .8, p = .4, [7.5, 9.5]
M arm: 3.6, p = .06, [10.7,6.2]
A arm: .05
A waist: .05
A ankle: .05
M arm: .24
Stroke (L) 1.00
[.99, 1.02]
1.00
[.001, .001]
1.00
[.001, .001]
1.12
[.96, 1.29]†
.89
[0.76, 1.01]
A arm: 4.0, p = .05, [8.5, 4.5]
A waist: 4.2, p = .04, [8.5, 4.5]
A ankle: 4.2, p = .04, [8.5, 4.5]
M arm: 5.8, p = .02, [9.0,4.0]
A arm: .36
A waist: .38
A ankle: .38
M arm: .53
Stroke (R) 1.00
[.001, .001]
1.00
[.001, .001]
1.00
[.001, .001]
1.13
[1.04, 1.22]†
.89
[0.65, 1.07]
A arm: 1.5, p = .2, [5.5, 3.5]
A waist: 1.5, p = .2, [5.5, 3.5]
A ankle: 1.5, p = .2, [5.5, 3.5]
M arm: 5.4, p = .02, [6.5, 2.5]
A arm: .21
A waist: .21
A ankle: .21
M arm: .77
Standing
Healthy 1.00
[.001,.001]*
1.00
[.001,.001]*
1.00
[.001,.001]*
1.81
[1.53, 2.08]
1.51
[1.23, 1.79]
A arm: 10.4, p = .001, [6.5, 14.5]
A waist: 10.4, p = .001, [6.5, 14.5]
A ankle: 10.4, p = .001, [6.5, 14.5]
M arm: 1.5, p = .2, [12.1, 8.9]
A arm: .51
A waist: .51
A ankle: .51
M arm: .28
iSCI 1.00
[.001,.001]
1.00
[.001,.001]
1.00
[.001,.001]
1.37
[1.0, 1.75]
1.22
[1.04, 1.39]
A arm: 3.2, p = .07, [6.5, 10.5]
A waist: 3.2, p = .07, [6.5, 10.5]
A ankle: 3.2, p = .07, [6.5, 10.5]
M arm: .01, p = .9, [8.6, 8.4]
A arm: .21
A waist: .21
A ankle: .21
M arm: .00
Stroke (L) 1.06
[0.90, 1.23]
1.00
[.001,.001]
1.00
[.001,.001]
1.15
[1.11, 1.21]
1.04
[0.81, 1.27]
A arm: .2, p = .6, [7.0, 6.0]
A waist: 0.0, p = .99, [6.5, 6.5]
A ankle: 0.0, p = .99, [6.5, 6.5]
M arm: .6, p = .4, [7.3, 5.6]
A arm: .02
A waist: .00
A ankle: .00
M arm: .05
Stroke (R) 1.00
[.001,.001]
1.00
[.001,.001]
1.00
[.001,.001]
1.15
[1.04, 1.26]
1.01
[0.70, 1.32]
A arm: 1.5, p = .2, [5.5, 3.5]
A waist: 1.5, p = .2, [5.5, 3.5]
A ankle: 1.5, p = .2, [5.5, 3.5]
M arm: 1.3, p = .2, [5.5, 3.5]
A arm: .21
A waist: .21
A ankle: .21
M arm: .19
50 steps walk
Healthy 2.18
[1.73, 2.63]
2.04
[1.57, 2.51]
3.90
[3.66, 4.14]*
1.86
[1.71, 2.02]
2.41
[1.76, 3.05]
A arm: .3, p = .6, [9.8, 11.2]
A waist: 1.0, p = .3, [9.2, 11.8]
A ankle: 11.1, p = .001, [14.9, 6.1]
M arm: 2.8, p = .1, [7.8,13.2]
A arm: .02
A waist: .05
A ankle: .58
M arm: .15
iSCI 1.19
[0.92, 1.46]*
1.01
[0.99, 1.03]*
2.08
[0.89, 3.27]
1.70
[0.75, 2.65] †
2.42
[2.01, 2.83]
A arm: 10.6, p = .001, [4.6, 12.4]
A waist: 11.6, p = .001, [4.5, 12.5]
A ankle: .7, p = .4, [7.5, 9.5]
M arm: 5.8, p = .02, [5.6,11.4]
A arm: .71
A waist: .77
A ankle: .05
M arm: .39
Stroke (L) 1.89
[0.94, 2.84]
1.58
[0.63, 2.52]
4.04
[3.35, 4.74]*
1.20
[1.01, 1.39] †
1.85
[1.59, 2.12]
A arm: .1, p = .7, [6.1, 6.8]
A waist: .9, p = .3, [5.5, 6.5]
A ankle: 8.3, p = .004, [9.5, 3.5]
M arm: 8.3, p = .004, [3.5, 9.5]
A arm: .01
A waist: .08
A ankle: .75
M arm: .75
Stroke (R) 2.30
[1.15, 3.45]
1.78
[1.23, 2.34]
2.43
[0.75, 4.11]
1.36
[0.88, 1.84]
1.96
[1.21, 2.71]
A arm: .7, p = .4, [5.2, 3.7]
A waist: .3, p = .6, [4.0, 5.0]
A ankle: .3, p = .6, [4.0, 5.0]
M arm: 3.0, p = .08, [3.0, 6.0]
A arm: .14
A waist: .04
A ankle: .04
M arm: .43
6 min walk test
Healthy 5.40
[4.13, 6.67]
5.55
[4.76, 6.34]
8.05
[7.25, 8.84]*
5.23
[4.47, 5.99]
5.39
[4.09, 6.70]
A arm: 0.00, p = .99, [10.5, 10.5]
A waist: .1, p = .7, [11.0, 10.0]
A ankle: 8.7, p = .003, [14.4, 6.6]
M arm: .1, p = .7, [11.0, 10.0]
A arm: .00
A waist: .01
A ankle: .46
M arm: .01
iSCI 1.86
[0.92, 2.79]
1.15
[0.94, 1.37]*
2.77
[1.36, 4.18]
3.35
[2.01, 4.69]
3.34
[2.53, 4.13]
A arm: 5.3, p = .02, [5.7, 11.2]
A waist: 11.5, p = 0.001, [4.5, 12.5]
A ankle: .5, p = .5, [7.6, 9.4]
M arm: .1, p = .7, [8.1, 8.9]
A arm: .35
A waist: .77
A ankle: .03
M arm: .01
Stroke (L) 3.93
[1.75, 6.11]
2.87
[0.13, 5.74]
6.27
[4.81, 7.74]
3.54
[2.53, 4.56]
3.54
[2.53, 4.56]
A arm: .03, p = .9, [6.7, 6.3]
A waist: 1.3, p = .3, [5.3, 7.7]
A ankle: 5.8, p = .02, [9.0, 4.0]
M arm: .00, p = .99, [6.5, 6.5]
A arm: .00
A waist: .02
A ankle: .53
M arm: .00
Stroke (R) 4.96
[3.88, 6.03]
4.38
[3.50, 5.26]
4.83
[3.67, 5.99]
3.28
[2.83, 3.74] †
4.23
[3.34, 5.13]
A arm: 2.1, p = .15, [5.7, 3.2]
A waist: .08, p = .8, [4.7, 4.2]
A ankle: 1.3, p = .25, [5.5, 3.5]
M arm: 4.1, p = .04, [2.7, 6.2]
A arm: .3
A waist: .01
A ankle: .18
M arm: .59
Multi-sit-to-stand
Healthy 6.66
[5.47, 7.85]
5.14
[3.66, 6.62]
1.02
[0.97, 1.07]*
3.14
[2.49, 3.79] †
5.36
[3.73, 6.98]
A arm: 1.5, p = .2, [12.1, 8.9]
A waist: .1, p = .8, [10.1, 10.9]
A ankle: 15.7, p < .001, [5.5,15.5]
M arm: 4.16, p = .04, [7.8, 13.2]
A arm: .08
A waist: .01
A ankle: .83
M arm: .22
iSCI 3.88
[2.53, 5.23]
1.23
[0.90, 1.56]*
1.00
[.001, .001]*
1.92
[1.34, 2.49] †
2.68
[2.26, 3.10]
A arm: 2.8, p = .1, [10.5, 6.5]
A waist: 10.7, p = .001, [4.6, 12.4]
A ankle: 12.9, p < .001, [4.5, 12.5]
M arm: 4.9, p = .03, [5.8,11.1]
A arm: .19
A waist: .71
A ankle: .86
M arm: .33
Stroke (L) 4.30
[3.02, 5.58]
3.50
[1.49, 5.51]
1.00
[.001, .001]*
1.38
[1.26, 1.51] †
3.16
[2.23, 4.10]
A arm: 3.7, p = .06, [8.5, 4.5]
A waist: .03, p = .9, [6.7, 6.3]
A ankle: 9.5, p = .002, [3.5, 9.5]
M arm: 8.3, p = .004, [3.5, 9.5]
A arm: .34
A waist: .00
A ankle: .86
M arm: .75
Stroke (R) 2.06
[0.45, 3.68]
3.85
[2.17, 5.53]
1.00
[.001, .001]*
1.50
[1.17, 1.83] †
3.29
[2.80, 3.78]
A arm: 3, p = .08, [3.0,6.0]
A waist: 1.3, p = .25, [5.5, 3.5]
A ankle: 6.0, p = .01, [2.5, 6.5]
M arm: 5.3, p = .02, [2.5, 6.5]
A arm: .43
A waist: .18
A ankle: .86
M arm: .76
  1. p < 0.05 (Metria-IH1); *p < 0.016 (ActiGraph)