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Table 3 Metabolic equivalent (MET) estimates for different group using SPA

From: Variables influencing wearable sensor outcome estimates in individuals with stroke and incomplete spinal cord injury: a pilot investigation validating two research grade sensors

Activity/Group

 MET estimates from standard algorithm.

Mean [95% CI [LB, UB]

Kruskal Wallis test statistics

Effect size

A arm (right)

A waist (right)

A ankle (right)

Metria (M arm (left))

Cosmed K4B2

χ2, p, mean rank [device, cosmed]

E2 =

\( \left\{\frac{x^2}{\frac{\left({N}^2-1\right)}{\left(N+1\right)}}\right\} \)

Lying

Healthy

1.03

[0.97, 1.08]*

1.02

[0.99, 1.00]*

1.03

[1.00, 1.05]*

1.79

[1.52, 2.05] †

2.33

[1.86, 2.79]

A arm: 9.7, p = .002, [6.5, 14.5]

A waist: 9.7, p = .002, [6.5, 14.5]

A ankle: 9.7, p = .002, [6.5, 14.5]

M arm: 5.4, p = .02, [7.5, 13.5]

A arm: .51

A waist: .51

A ankle: .51

M arm: .28

iSCI

1.00

[.001, .001]*

1.00

[.001, .001]*

1.00

[.001, .001]*

1.19

[1.06, 1.31]

1.12

[0.94, 1.30]

A arm: 3.2, p = .07, [6.5, 10.5]

A waist: 3.2, p = .07, [6.5, 10.5]

A ankle: 3.2, p = .07, [6.5, 10.5]

M arm: .71, p = .4, [9.5,7.5]

A arm: .21

A waist: .21

A ankle: .21

M arm: .05

Stroke (L)

1.00

[.001,.001]

1.01

[0.97, 1.07]

1.00

[.001,.001]

1.13

[0.94, 1.33]

1.07

[1.01, 1.13]

A arm: 4.2, p = .04, [4.5, 8.5]

A waist: 1.8, p = .2, [5.1, 7.8]

A ankle: 4.2, p = .04, [4.5, 8.5]

M arm: 0.03, p = .9, [6.7, 6.3]

A arm: .38

A waist: .16

A ankle: .38

M arm: .00

Stroke (R)

1.00

[.001, .001]*

1.00

[.001, .001]*

1.00

[.001, .001]*

1.14

[1.02, 1.27]

1.16

[.76, 1.57]

A arm: 1.5, p = .2, [3.5, 5.5]

A waist: 1.5, p = .2, [3.5, 5.5]

A ankle: 1.5, p = .2, [3.5, 5.5]

M arm: 0.1, p = .8, [4.2, 4.7]

A arm: .21

A waist: .21

A ankle: .21

M arm: .01

Sitting

Healthy

1.00

[1.00, 1.01]*

1.00

[1.00, 1.01]*

1.00

[1.00, 1.01]*

2.03

[1.66, 2.38]

1.60

[1.28, 1.92]

A arm: 10.0, p = .002, [6.5, 14.5]

A waist: 10.4, p = .001, [6.5, 14.5]

A ankle: 10.4, p = .001, [6.5, 14.5]

M arm: 3.6, p = .06, [13.0,8.0]

A arm: .53

A waist: .55

A ankle: .55

M arm: .19

iSCI

1.00

[1.00, 1.01]

1.00

[1.00, 1.01]

1.00

[1.00, 1.01]

1.22

[1.10, 1.34]

1.05

[0.88, 1.21]

A arm: .8, p = .4, [7.5, 9.5]

A waist: .8, p = .4, [7.5, 9.5]

A ankle: .8, p = .4, [7.5, 9.5]

M arm: 3.6, p = .06, [10.7,6.2]

A arm: .05

A waist: .05

A ankle: .05

M arm: .24

Stroke (L)

1.00

[.99, 1.02]

1.00

[.001, .001]

1.00

[.001, .001]

1.12

[.96, 1.29]†

.89

[0.76, 1.01]

A arm: 4.0, p = .05, [8.5, 4.5]

A waist: 4.2, p = .04, [8.5, 4.5]

A ankle: 4.2, p = .04, [8.5, 4.5]

M arm: 5.8, p = .02, [9.0,4.0]

A arm: .36

A waist: .38

A ankle: .38

M arm: .53

Stroke (R)

1.00

[.001, .001]

1.00

[.001, .001]

1.00

[.001, .001]

1.13

[1.04, 1.22]†

.89

[0.65, 1.07]

A arm: 1.5, p = .2, [5.5, 3.5]

A waist: 1.5, p = .2, [5.5, 3.5]

A ankle: 1.5, p = .2, [5.5, 3.5]

M arm: 5.4, p = .02, [6.5, 2.5]

A arm: .21

A waist: .21

A ankle: .21

M arm: .77

Standing

Healthy

1.00

[.001,.001]*

1.00

[.001,.001]*

1.00

[.001,.001]*

1.81

[1.53, 2.08]

1.51

[1.23, 1.79]

A arm: 10.4, p = .001, [6.5, 14.5]

A waist: 10.4, p = .001, [6.5, 14.5]

A ankle: 10.4, p = .001, [6.5, 14.5]

M arm: 1.5, p = .2, [12.1, 8.9]

A arm: .51

A waist: .51

A ankle: .51

M arm: .28

iSCI

1.00

[.001,.001]

1.00

[.001,.001]

1.00

[.001,.001]

1.37

[1.0, 1.75]

1.22

[1.04, 1.39]

A arm: 3.2, p = .07, [6.5, 10.5]

A waist: 3.2, p = .07, [6.5, 10.5]

A ankle: 3.2, p = .07, [6.5, 10.5]

M arm: .01, p = .9, [8.6, 8.4]

A arm: .21

A waist: .21

A ankle: .21

M arm: .00

Stroke (L)

1.06

[0.90, 1.23]

1.00

[.001,.001]

1.00

[.001,.001]

1.15

[1.11, 1.21]

1.04

[0.81, 1.27]

A arm: .2, p = .6, [7.0, 6.0]

A waist: 0.0, p = .99, [6.5, 6.5]

A ankle: 0.0, p = .99, [6.5, 6.5]

M arm: .6, p = .4, [7.3, 5.6]

A arm: .02

A waist: .00

A ankle: .00

M arm: .05

Stroke (R)

1.00

[.001,.001]

1.00

[.001,.001]

1.00

[.001,.001]

1.15

[1.04, 1.26]

1.01

[0.70, 1.32]

A arm: 1.5, p = .2, [5.5, 3.5]

A waist: 1.5, p = .2, [5.5, 3.5]

A ankle: 1.5, p = .2, [5.5, 3.5]

M arm: 1.3, p = .2, [5.5, 3.5]

A arm: .21

A waist: .21

A ankle: .21

M arm: .19

50 steps walk

Healthy

2.18

[1.73, 2.63]

2.04

[1.57, 2.51]

3.90

[3.66, 4.14]*

1.86

[1.71, 2.02]

2.41

[1.76, 3.05]

A arm: .3, p = .6, [9.8, 11.2]

A waist: 1.0, p = .3, [9.2, 11.8]

A ankle: 11.1, p = .001, [14.9, 6.1]

M arm: 2.8, p = .1, [7.8,13.2]

A arm: .02

A waist: .05

A ankle: .58

M arm: .15

iSCI

1.19

[0.92, 1.46]*

1.01

[0.99, 1.03]*

2.08

[0.89, 3.27]

1.70

[0.75, 2.65] †

2.42

[2.01, 2.83]

A arm: 10.6, p = .001, [4.6, 12.4]

A waist: 11.6, p = .001, [4.5, 12.5]

A ankle: .7, p = .4, [7.5, 9.5]

M arm: 5.8, p = .02, [5.6,11.4]

A arm: .71

A waist: .77

A ankle: .05

M arm: .39

Stroke (L)

1.89

[0.94, 2.84]

1.58

[0.63, 2.52]

4.04

[3.35, 4.74]*

1.20

[1.01, 1.39] †

1.85

[1.59, 2.12]

A arm: .1, p = .7, [6.1, 6.8]

A waist: .9, p = .3, [5.5, 6.5]

A ankle: 8.3, p = .004, [9.5, 3.5]

M arm: 8.3, p = .004, [3.5, 9.5]

A arm: .01

A waist: .08

A ankle: .75

M arm: .75

Stroke (R)

2.30

[1.15, 3.45]

1.78

[1.23, 2.34]

2.43

[0.75, 4.11]

1.36

[0.88, 1.84]

1.96

[1.21, 2.71]

A arm: .7, p = .4, [5.2, 3.7]

A waist: .3, p = .6, [4.0, 5.0]

A ankle: .3, p = .6, [4.0, 5.0]

M arm: 3.0, p = .08, [3.0, 6.0]

A arm: .14

A waist: .04

A ankle: .04

M arm: .43

6 min walk test

Healthy

5.40

[4.13, 6.67]

5.55

[4.76, 6.34]

8.05

[7.25, 8.84]*

5.23

[4.47, 5.99]

5.39

[4.09, 6.70]

A arm: 0.00, p = .99, [10.5, 10.5]

A waist: .1, p = .7, [11.0, 10.0]

A ankle: 8.7, p = .003, [14.4, 6.6]

M arm: .1, p = .7, [11.0, 10.0]

A arm: .00

A waist: .01

A ankle: .46

M arm: .01

iSCI

1.86

[0.92, 2.79]

1.15

[0.94, 1.37]*

2.77

[1.36, 4.18]

3.35

[2.01, 4.69]

3.34

[2.53, 4.13]

A arm: 5.3, p = .02, [5.7, 11.2]

A waist: 11.5, p = 0.001, [4.5, 12.5]

A ankle: .5, p = .5, [7.6, 9.4]

M arm: .1, p = .7, [8.1, 8.9]

A arm: .35

A waist: .77

A ankle: .03

M arm: .01

Stroke (L)

3.93

[1.75, 6.11]

2.87

[0.13, 5.74]

6.27

[4.81, 7.74]

3.54

[2.53, 4.56]

3.54

[2.53, 4.56]

A arm: .03, p = .9, [6.7, 6.3]

A waist: 1.3, p = .3, [5.3, 7.7]

A ankle: 5.8, p = .02, [9.0, 4.0]

M arm: .00, p = .99, [6.5, 6.5]

A arm: .00

A waist: .02

A ankle: .53

M arm: .00

Stroke (R)

4.96

[3.88, 6.03]

4.38

[3.50, 5.26]

4.83

[3.67, 5.99]

3.28

[2.83, 3.74] †

4.23

[3.34, 5.13]

A arm: 2.1, p = .15, [5.7, 3.2]

A waist: .08, p = .8, [4.7, 4.2]

A ankle: 1.3, p = .25, [5.5, 3.5]

M arm: 4.1, p = .04, [2.7, 6.2]

A arm: .3

A waist: .01

A ankle: .18

M arm: .59

Multi-sit-to-stand

Healthy

6.66

[5.47, 7.85]

5.14

[3.66, 6.62]

1.02

[0.97, 1.07]*

3.14

[2.49, 3.79] †

5.36

[3.73, 6.98]

A arm: 1.5, p = .2, [12.1, 8.9]

A waist: .1, p = .8, [10.1, 10.9]

A ankle: 15.7, p < .001, [5.5,15.5]

M arm: 4.16, p = .04, [7.8, 13.2]

A arm: .08

A waist: .01

A ankle: .83

M arm: .22

iSCI

3.88

[2.53, 5.23]

1.23

[0.90, 1.56]*

1.00

[.001, .001]*

1.92

[1.34, 2.49] †

2.68

[2.26, 3.10]

A arm: 2.8, p = .1, [10.5, 6.5]

A waist: 10.7, p = .001, [4.6, 12.4]

A ankle: 12.9, p < .001, [4.5, 12.5]

M arm: 4.9, p = .03, [5.8,11.1]

A arm: .19

A waist: .71

A ankle: .86

M arm: .33

Stroke (L)

4.30

[3.02, 5.58]

3.50

[1.49, 5.51]

1.00

[.001, .001]*

1.38

[1.26, 1.51] †

3.16

[2.23, 4.10]

A arm: 3.7, p = .06, [8.5, 4.5]

A waist: .03, p = .9, [6.7, 6.3]

A ankle: 9.5, p = .002, [3.5, 9.5]

M arm: 8.3, p = .004, [3.5, 9.5]

A arm: .34

A waist: .00

A ankle: .86

M arm: .75

Stroke (R)

2.06

[0.45, 3.68]

3.85

[2.17, 5.53]

1.00

[.001, .001]*

1.50

[1.17, 1.83] †

3.29

[2.80, 3.78]

A arm: 3, p = .08, [3.0,6.0]

A waist: 1.3, p = .25, [5.5, 3.5]

A ankle: 6.0, p = .01, [2.5, 6.5]

M arm: 5.3, p = .02, [2.5, 6.5]

A arm: .43

A waist: .18

A ankle: .86

M arm: .76

  1. p < 0.05 (Metria-IH1); *p < 0.016 (ActiGraph)