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Table 2 Intervention characteristics

From: Rehabilitation technologies and interventions for individuals with spinal cord injury: translational potential of current trends

  Number of studies (% of total (n = 73))
Mode
 Electrical stimulation 20 (27%)
 Brain 8 (11%)
  tDCS 2 (3%)
  rTMS 4 (5%)
  DBS 2 (3%)
 Spinal Cord 4 (5%)
  Epidural 4 (5%)
 PNS (i.e. FES) 8 (11%)
  Surface FES for UE 4 (5%)
  Surface FES for UE and LE (cycling) 1 (1%)
  Implanted FES for LE 2 (3%)
  Implanted FES for trunk 1 (1%)
 Repetitive Movement Traininga 16 (22%)
  Overground gait training 5 (7%)
  “Locomotor training”b 2 (3%)
  BWSTT 1 (1%)
  TT in aquatic environment 1 (1%)
  Cycling 1 (1%)
  Dance/yoga 1 (1%)
  Balance exercises 1 (1%)
  Weight-bearing exercisesc 2 (3%)
  UE exercises 2 (3%)
 Robotics 15 (21%)
  LE exoskeleton 9 (12%)
  Lokomat 3 (4%)
  UE robotic device (1 brain-controlled) 2 (3%)
  LE & UE robotic device 1 (1%)
 Combination 9 (12%)
  Two types of stimulation (i.e. brain + SC or FES) 6 (8%)
  Robotics + stimulation (i.e. brain or SCI) 3 (4%)
 Intermittent Hypoxia 6 (8%)
  LE function 5 (7%)
  UE function 1 (1%)
 Virtual Reality 5 (7%)
  Walking/LE function 3 (4%)
  UE function & trunk (virtual sailing) 1 (1%)
  Not specified 1 (1%)
 Whole-body vibration (LE) 1 (1%)
 Low-level laser therapyd 1 (1%)
Target Function
 LE 46 (63%)
 UE 15 (22%)
 Trunk (seated balance) 1 (1%)
 LE & UE 10 (13%)
 UE & trunk 1 (1%)
  1. aWithout technology or therapeutic assistive devices
  2. bDetails of locomotor training not specified
  3. cSit-to-stand exercises in one study
  4. dAim is to affect sensory and motor function. tDCS = transcranial direct current stimulation; rTMS = repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation; DBS = deep brain stimulation; PNS = peripheral nerve stimulation; FES = functional electrical stimulation; LE = lower extremity; UE = upper extremity; BWSTT = body weight-supported treadmill training; TT = treadmill training; SC = spinal cord; SCI = spinal cord injury