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Table 6 Assessment of risk of bias of the studies using Cochrane Collaboration’s risk of bias tool

From: The effects of error-augmentation versus error-reduction paradigms in robotic therapy to enhance upper extremity performance and recovery post-stroke: a systematic review

  Random sequence generation (selection bias) Allocation concealment (selection bias) Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias) Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias) Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias) Selective reporting (reporting bias) Other bias
Abdollahi et al. [52] Lowa Highb Low Low Low Low Low
Bouchard et al. [61] Low High Low Low Low Low Short training period
Cesqui et al. [58] High High Unclearc High High High Small sample size, baseline differences between groups
Givon-Mayo et al. [63] Low High High High High Unclear Very small sample size, baseline differences between groups
Huang and Patton [59] Low High High High Low Low Short training period
Kahn et al. [55] Low High High Low Unclear High Small sample size, short training period
Majeed et al. [62] Low High Low Low Low Low Low
Patton et al. [53] Low High High Low Low Low Short training period, small sample size
Patton et al. [24] High High High High Low Low Short training period
Rozario et al. [60] Low High High Low Low Low Small sample size
Takahashi et al. [56] Low High Low High High Low Small sample size
Timmermans et al. [57] Low Low High Low Low Low Low
Tropea et al. [54] Low High High Low Low High Small sample size
  1. aLow: low risk of bias; bHigh: high risk of bias; cUnclear: unclear risk of bias