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Table 10 Effects of powered walking on the ankle kinematics and gait pattern of impaired patients

From: Powered ankle-foot orthoses: the effects of the assistance on healthy and impaired users while walking


Ankle RoM

Drop foot occurrence


Awad, 2017 [63] (Str)

Df in swing (4.78 deg) w.r.t. U



Awad, 2017 [64] (Str), tethered

Df in swing (5.33 deg) w.r.t. U


in peak propulsion w.r.t. U (20%)


peak propulsion (11%) w.r.t. U


in propulsion impulse w.r.t. U (19%)

Awad, 2017 [64] (Str), untethered

Df in swing (4.9 deg) w.r.t. U


in propulsion w.r.t. U (16.3%)


peak propulsion (13%) w.r.t. U


propulsion impulse (14%) w.r.t. U


Bae, 2015 [26] (Str)



in step time by 6% w.r.t. N


in stance time by 4% w.r.t. N


in propulsion by 7% w.r.t. N

Bae, 2018 [27] (Str)



in positive body CoM power by 39% w.r.t. U


in ankle power by 40% w.r.t. U

Blaya, 2004 [51] (Dfi)

Df in swing (37%-200%) for all speeds w.r.t. A; Pf in stance (25%-89%) for all speeds w.r.t. A

eliminated in P and A at slow and self-selected speed; at fast speed by 67% in P w.r.t. A

in step length w.r.t. A and N (up to 100%); in step time w.r.t. A (up to 75%) and N (up to 94%)

Sawicki, 2006 [65] (iSCI)

PO angle w.r.t. U (up to 14.5 deg) and N (up to 10.7 deg) for all speeds in therapist-control, results in patient-control lower than in therapist-control;




better improvements at lower speeds


Shorter, 2011 [52] (Pfi)

kinematics minimally affected by PAFO (slightly Df)



Shorter, 2011 [53] (Pfi)



shifted from 2% longer right step in N to 2% and 6% longer left step in U and P

Shorter, 2011 [53] (Dfi)

corrected RoM during swing; RoM in late stance


shifted from 1% longer right step in N to 4% and 2% longer left step in U and P; eliminated for step time

Takahashi, 2015 [39] (Str)

RoM more dorsiflexed in U and P w.r.t. N



Yeung, 2017 [54] (Str)

no improvements in PO



  1. The ankle kinematics, occurrence of drop foot, and gait symmetry are compared between the following conditions: walking with powered assistive PAFOs (P), unpowered condition (U), walking with a conventional AFO (A), or walking without devices (N)
  2. Dfi, Pfi: Dorsiflexion-/plantarflexion-impaired patients; iSCI: Incomplete spinal cord injury patients; Str: Stroke patients; Df, Pf: Dorsiflexion and plantarflexion; PO: Push-off; CoM: Center of mass