Skip to main content

Table 5 Comparison of adaptation time in different studies

From: Powered ankle-foot orthoses: the effects of the assistance on healthy and impaired users while walking

Ref. Control Ul / Bl Onset Peak Parameter Adaptation
    timing torque   time
       (nth session)
Cain, 2007 PMc Ul 25% 0.6 Nm/kg kinematics 28 min (1)
[35] (SOL)      7 min (2)
      SOL 18 min (1)
       5 min (2)
  P-Bc UI 25% 0.6 Nm/kg kinematics 28 min (1)
       7 min (2)
      SOL 18 min (1)
       4 min (2)
Galle, 2013 P-Bc BI 43% / kinematics 4 min (1)
[43]      metab. cost 19 min (1)
Gordon, 2007 PMc UI 27% 0.5 Nm/kg kinematics 24 min (1)
[31] (SOL)      6 min (2)
      SOL 24 min (1)
       6 min (2)
Kao, 2010 PMc Ul 15% 0.7 Nm/kg SOL >30 min (1)
[33] (SOL)      >30 min (2)
Kinnaird, 2009 PMc UI / 0.6 Nm/kg kinematics 25 min (1)
[34] (MG)      6 min (2)
      MG 22 min (1)
       5 min (2)
      SOL 19 min (1)
       4 min (2)
Koller, 2015 Ag-PMc Bl 11% 0.6 Nm/kg metab. cost <30 min (1)
[40] (SOL)      <30 min (2)
       <30 min (3)
Koller, 2017 Ag-PMc BI / / metab. cost <90 min
[41] (SOL)      (30 min x (3))
Sawicki, 2008 PMc Bl / 0.5 Nm/kg metab. cost 90 min
[36] (SOL)      (30 min x (3))
  1. The adaptation time for ankle kinematics, muscle activity, and metabolic cost of walking for healthy users with respect to the onset timing (reported as a percentage of the gait time) and the peak torque provided by the PAFO. The works presented by Sawicki et al. [36] and Koller et al. [40, 41] are included, but they reported on whether the subjects reached a steady state without measuring the exact adaptation time
  2. PMc, Ag-PMc: Proportional myoelectric controller and adaptive gain PMc, P-Bc: Phase-based controller; SOL, MG: Soleus and medial gastrocnemius muscle; Ul, Bl: Uni-/bi-lateral PAFO. Symbols (,) indicate studies performed by the same research group on similar actuation setups. Symbols are consistent between tables. In the works in which different experiments were performed (for example, different parameters) the common information between the experiments (for example, same control strategy) is reported only once