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Table 2 Included studies reported by design and subject specifications

From: Trends in robot-assisted and virtual reality-assisted neuromuscular therapy: a systematic review of health-related multiplayer games

Study Design N Subjects Age range or mean age ± one standard deviation (years)
Feltz et al. 2012 [34] Randomized 135 Undergraduate students 19.8±2.7
Ganesh et al. 2014 [27] Within subject 74 Healthy subjects 25 …42
Goršič et al. 2017 [31] Within subject 29 Patients (ischemic stroke: 19; hemorrhagic stroke: 3; brain tumor: 4; shoulder rotator cuff tear: 2; traumatic brain injury: 1) with chronic arm impairment 56.7±14.7
Goršič et al. 2017 [32] Within subject 35 15 patients (ischemic stroke: 9; hemorrhagic stroke: 1; ischemic stroke followed by hemorrhagic stroke: 2; traumatic brain injury: 1; cerebral palsy 2) with chronic arm impairment / 20 patients in the acute or subacute phase of stroke 52.7±13.7/57.8±11.7
Goršič et al. 2017 [33] Within subject 69 64 unimpaired friends (undergraduate students) / 5 arm impaired due to neurological injuries (ischemic stroke: 3; traumatic brain injury: 1; spinal cord injury: 1) 25.6±6.9/24…51
Johnson et al. 2008 [28] Within subject 18 Healthy subjects 21 …62
Mace et al. 2017 [29] Within subject 48 32 healthy / 16 hemiparetic stroke survivors using their impaired arm 26.3±4.5/70.3±19.7
Novak et al. 2014 [30] Within subject 38 30 unimpaired (no cognitive or motor impairment) / 8 stroke patients 25 …73 / 22 …69
Peng and Crouse 2013 [35] Assigned 162 Undergraduate communication class 18 …23
Peng and Hsieh 2012 [36] Within subject 158 Undergraduate communication class at a large Midwestern university 18 …23
Staiano et al. 2012 [25] Randomized 31 Low-income, adolescents, public high school 15 …19
Staiano et al. 2013 [26] RCT 31 Adolescents, urban public high school 15 …19
Verhoeven et al. 2015 [24] Within subject 43 Seventh grade students exhibiting an inactive lifestyle 12 …16