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Table 4 Examples of stimulation parameters in literature

From: Safety of long-term electrical peripheral nerve stimulation: review of the state of the art

Publication Subjects Electrode type Stimulation/ Recording Electrode Placement Treatment Duration (Y) Purpose of Stimulation Stimulation Parameters
Charge of Stimulating Phase (Q) Current of Stimulating Phase (I) Duration of Stimulating Phase (D) Stimulation Frequency (F) Train Duration (T) Effective Stimulation Time per Day (S) Potential Stimulation Time per Day (P) Percentage of Effective Stimulation (O) Waveform
Shape Polarity Symmetry Inter-Phase Delay (w)
Electrical Stimulation for Sensory Feedback
 Clippinger et al. [57] A Cuff S M <  2 y S c 0–100  
 Anani et al. [97] AB Needle S M, R <  1 d S <  200 250–2600 30–250 2.5–160 1 20 Rect. M
 Walker et al. [115] A Cuff S M 3 y S c 20–640 0–90 2 24 8.3
 Anani and Körner [116] AB Needle S forearm <  1 d S b 200 10–80 120 Rect. a
 Anani and Körner [116] A Needle S M, R, U <  1 d S 40–300 400–3000 100 10–80 3–4 Rect. a
 Ochoa and Torebjörk [95] AB Needle S, R M, U <  1 d S c 250 1–300 2 3–6 Rect. M
 Dhillon et al. [8] A LIFE S, R M, U, P <  1 m S <  50 <  200 250 10–800 0.5 Rect. M, B A, S
 Dhillon and Horch [7] A LIFE S, R M <  1 m S b 300 10–500 0.5
 Dhillon et al. [9] A LIFE S, R M <  1 m S <  60 1–200 300 10–510 0.5 B
 Rossini et al. [10] A Tf-LIFE4 S, R M, U <  1 m S <  3 10–100 10–300 10–500 0.3–0.5 Rect.
 Horch et al. [11] A LIFE S M, U <  2 w S b 290 20–200 B 75
 Clark et al. [12] A USEA S, R M, U <  1 m S 2–2.4 10–12 200 200 0.2
 Ortiz-Catalan et al. [18] A Cuff S U 20 m S 100–180 8–30 B
 Raspopovic et al. [13] A TIME S M, U <  1 m S <  24 240 100 50 0.5 Rect. B
 Tan et al. [17] A FINE S M, R, U 16 m & 24 m S <  2000 20–167 1–1000 <  60 4–6 Rect B A
 Davis et al. [14] A USEA S, R M, U <  1 m S 0.2–20 1–100 200 1–320 0.2–60 2 B 100
 Graczyk et al. [19] A FINE S M, R, U 3 y & 4 y S b <  255 12.5–166 1–5 Rect. B
 Oddo et al. [15] A TIME S M <  1 m S 16 160 100
 Schiefer et al. [21] A FINE S M, R, U 2 y & 3 y S 255 10–125 5–6 B
 Mastinu et al. [20] A Cuff S U 4 y S <  30 Rect. B A 50
 Ortiz-Catalan et al. [22] A Cuff S U 4 y S
 Wendelken et al. [16] A Cuff S, R M, U 4–5 w S <  24 <  120 200 <  200 1–6 B 100
 Graczyk et al. [114] A FINE S M, R, U 5 y S 300 <  255 25–299 <  3 min < 6 Rect. B
Electrical Stimulation for Motor Function, Pain Relief, or other purposes
 Nashold et al. [39] CP Cuff, Button S M, R, S, U <  11 y O c 300 25–100 B
 Waters et al. [6] P Cuff S P <  12 y M c 200 33 Rect.
 Ben-Menachem et al. [83] E Cuff S V 14 w O 250–3000 130–500 1–50 30–90 5–23
 Elefteriades et al. [5] Q Ribbon S Ph <  18 y M 15–690 100–4600 150 7.2–8.3 0.9–1.3 0.016–0.48 8–12 0.2–0.4
 Vandoninck et al. [117] UI Needle S T <  1 d O 4000 0–20,000 200 20 0.5 0.5 100?
 Fisher et al. [93] SCI Cuff S F 3 y M 160–420 800–2100 200 20 760 B
 Abdellaoui et al. [118] COPD T S 6000-18,800 15,000-47,000 400 35 3600 1 1 100 Rect. B S
 Christie et al. [26] A, SCI Cuff S A, F, Fi, LT, Mu, R, Su, Th, T <  11 y M, S 100–20,000 1–255 12.5–100 B
  1. Subjects: AB Able-bodied, A Amputee, COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CP Chronic pain due to peripheral nerve injury, P Centrally paralyzed ankle dorsiflexor muscle, Q Quadriplegia, SCI Spinal cord injury, UI Urge incontinence
  2. Electrode types: Cuff, LIFE longitudinal intrafascicular electrode, Needle, Ribbontf-LIFE4 thin film longitudinal intrafascicular multielectrode, T transcutaneous electrode, TIME transversal intrafascicular multichannel electrode, USEA Utah Slanted Electrode Array
  3. S Stimulation, R Recording
  4. Electrode Placement: A axillary, F femoral, Fi fibular, LT long thoracic, M median, Mu musculocutaneous, P peroneal, Ph phrenic, R radial, S sciatic, Su suprascapular, Th thoracodorsal, T tibial, U ulnar
  5. Purpose of Stimulation: M motor function, O other, S sensory feedback
  6. Stimulation Parameters: see Tables 1 and 2
  7. Waveform: Shape: Rect Rectangular
  8. Polarity: M Monophasic, B Bipphasic
  9. Symmetry: S Symmetric, A Asymmetric
  10. a- continuous pattern
  11. b − individually determined, no specification
  12. c − voltage modulation