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Table 2 Kinematics calculated during reach-to-grasp movement for all conditions

From: Coordination of reach-to-grasp in physical and haptic-free virtual environments

Variables/Conditions   Large Medium Small
  Near Middle Far Near Middle Far Near Middle Far
Movement Time
MT (ms)
PE 904.3 977.0 1027.3 934.5 1002.8 1057.4 939.3 1033.3 1121.7
sd ±95.0 ±119.7 ±117.2 ±115.5 ±112.5 ±120.0 ±119.6 ±138.1 ±167.5
VE 1053.1 1113.8 1144.6 1001.6 1037.2 1134.8 978.1 1025.5 1080.9
sd ±157.4 ±155.6 ±143.5 ±170.9 ±143.2 ±156.5 ±135.5 ±125.1 ±150.5
Peak Aperture
PA (cm)
PE 11.1 11.1 11.0 9.5 9.4 9.6 7.8 7.9 7.9
sd ±0.6 ±0.5 ±0.5 ±0.5 ±0.6 ±0.5 ±0.6 ±0.5 ±0.5
VE 10.0 10.1 10.1 8.7 9.0 9.0 7.5 7.7 7.7
sd ±1.3 ±1.3 ±1.1 ±1.2 ±1.3 ±1.2 ±1.2 ±1.1 ±1.2
Relative Time to Peak Aperture
rTPA (%)
PE 66.4 67.1 69.0 66.1 67.4 66.7 64.4 65.5 65.1
sd ±6.2 ±5.4 ±5.2 ±5.9 ±6.2 ±6.6 ±5.8 ±6.9 ±7.0
VE 60.2 61.7 61.8 58.8 59.3 60.7 57.1 59.7 61.5
sd ±9.1 ±8.4 ±9.0 ±7.1 ±9.1 ±9.6 ±9.8 ±8.9 ±9.0
Size Normalized Peak Aperture
snPA (a.u.)
PE 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.6 1.5 1.6 2.1 2.1 2.1
sd ±0.1 ±0.1 ±0.1 ±0.1 ±0.2 ±0.2 ±0.3 ±0.3 ±0.3
VE 1.7 1.7 1.7 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.7 2.6 2.5
sd ±0.3 ±0.2 ±0.2 ±0.3 ±0.3 ±0.4 ±0.7 ±0.6 ±0.7
Peak Transport Velocity
PV (cm/s)
PE 61.6 73.2 83.5 60.2 69.9 82.5 57.8 68.2 77.7
sd ±7.0 ±9.1 ±10.7 ±8.1 ±9.7 ±11.1 ±7.6 ±9.0 ±11.9
VE 51.5 64.0 74.3 52.9 67.4 75.8 53.6 66.2 74.4
sd ±6.3 ±9.6 ±13.3 ±8.9 ±9.6 ±11.9 ±6.7 ±7.9 ±9.5
Relative Time to Peak Transport Velocity
rTPV (%)
PE 32.0 31.5 31.7 31.6 32.6 32.0 34.0 32.3 31.9
sd ±5.4 ±4.5 ±4.8 ±6.1 ±3.6 ±5.0 ±4.5 ±5.3 ±4.4
VE 33.2 32.7 32.0 34.3 32.0 32.5 34.8 34.6 35.0
sd ±6.8 ±6.7 ±5.5 ±6.1 ±5.0 ±5.6 ±6.2 ±5.4 ±5.1
Hand Distance to the Object at Peak Aperture
hdPA (cm)
PE 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.5 2.6 3.0 3.1 3.1 3.5
sd ±0.7 ±0.9 ±0.8 ±0.9 ±0.9 ±1.1 ±1.2 ±1.0 ±1.4
VE 3.3 3.6 4.2 4.0 4.3 4.8 4.6 5.0 5.7
sd ±1.5 ±1.7 ±2.0 ±1.6 ±2.1 ±2.6 ±1.8 ±2.2 ±2.4
  1. PE - Physical environment, VE - Virtual environment, data represents mean with standard deviation (sd)