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Table 2 Kinematics calculated during reach-to-grasp movement for all conditions

From: Coordination of reach-to-grasp in physical and haptic-free virtual environments

Variables/Conditions LargeMediumSmall
 NearMiddleFarNearMiddleFarNearMiddleFar
Movement TimeMT (ms)PE904.3977.01027.3934.51002.81057.4939.31033.31121.7
sd±95.0±119.7±117.2±115.5±112.5±120.0±119.6±138.1±167.5
VE1053.11113.81144.61001.61037.21134.8978.11025.51080.9
sd±157.4±155.6±143.5±170.9±143.2±156.5±135.5±125.1±150.5
Peak AperturePA (cm)PE11.111.111.09.59.49.67.87.97.9
sd±0.6±0.5±0.5±0.5±0.6±0.5±0.6±0.5±0.5
VE10.010.110.18.79.09.07.57.77.7
sd±1.3±1.3±1.1±1.2±1.3±1.2±1.2±1.1±1.2
Relative Time to Peak AperturerTPA (%)PE66.467.169.066.167.466.764.465.565.1
sd±6.2±5.4±5.2±5.9±6.2±6.6±5.8±6.9±7.0
VE60.261.761.858.859.360.757.159.761.5
sd±9.1±8.4±9.0±7.1±9.1±9.6±9.8±8.9±9.0
Size Normalized Peak AperturesnPA (a.u.)PE1.41.41.31.61.51.62.12.12.1
sd±0.1±0.1±0.1±0.1±0.2±0.2±0.3±0.3±0.3
VE1.71.71.72.02.12.22.72.62.5
sd±0.3±0.2±0.2±0.3±0.3±0.4±0.7±0.6±0.7
Peak Transport VelocityPV (cm/s)PE61.673.283.560.269.982.557.868.277.7
sd±7.0±9.1±10.7±8.1±9.7±11.1±7.6±9.0±11.9
VE51.564.074.352.967.475.853.666.274.4
sd±6.3±9.6±13.3±8.9±9.6±11.9±6.7±7.9±9.5
Relative Time to Peak Transport VelocityrTPV (%)PE32.031.531.731.632.632.034.032.331.9
sd±5.4±4.5±4.8±6.1±3.6±5.0±4.5±5.3±4.4
VE33.232.732.034.332.032.534.834.635.0
sd±6.8±6.7±5.5±6.1±5.0±5.6±6.2±5.4±5.1
Hand Distance to the Object at Peak AperturehdPA (cm)PE2.52.62.72.52.63.03.13.13.5
sd±0.7±0.9±0.8±0.9±0.9±1.1±1.2±1.0±1.4
VE3.33.64.24.04.34.84.65.05.7
sd±1.5±1.7±2.0±1.6±2.1±2.6±1.8±2.2±2.4
  1. PE - Physical environment, VE - Virtual environment, data represents mean with standard deviation (sd)