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Table 1 Demographic, neurological, and functional characteristics of the experimental and control group at baseline

From: Elements virtual rehabilitation improves motor, cognitive, and functional outcomes in adult stroke: evidence from a randomized controlled pilot study

  Virtual Rehabilitation (n = 10) Treatment As Usual (n = 11) Comparison Test
Age (years)a 64.3 (17.4), 42–94 (66) 64.6 (12.0), 52–79 (69) t = − 0.05, p = 0.96
Genderb    χ2 = 0.6, p = 0.80
Male 4 (40) 5 (45)  
Female 6 (60) 6 (55)  
Education (years)a 13.5 (2.1), 10–16 (14) 12.5 (1.9), 10–15 (12) t = 1.20, p = 0.24
Rehab NIHSSa 3.0 (1.8), 0–5 (3.5) 2.3 (1.6), 0–4 (2.5) t = 0.67, p = 0.52
Time since stroke (days)a 22.8 (14.8), 8–44 (24) 30.0 (15.9), 10–62 (32) t = − 1.07, p = 0.30
Ischemic Strokeb 9 (90) 9 (82)  
Hemorrhagic Strokeb 1 (10) 2 (18)  
Left-sided lesionb 4 (40) 5 (45)  
Right-sided lesionb 6 (60) 6 (55)  
Oxfordshire Classification    χ2 = 4.96, p = 0.17
TACI/Hb 5 (50) 1 (9)  
LACI/Hb 1 (10) 2 (18)  
PACI/Hb 2 (20) 6 (55)  
POCI/Hb 2 (20) 2 (18)  
MoCA baselinea 18.4 (2.5), 14–22 (18.5) 19.2 (4.1), 12–24 (18) t = −0.53, p = 0.61
BBT baseline, MAHa 21.8 (12.8), 12–43 (15) 21.5 (8.1), 13–34 (20) t = 0.08, p = 0.94
BBT baseline, LAHa 45.1 (7.9), 30–56 (44.5) 44.5 (8.3), 30–55 (45) t = 0.18, p = 0.86
GMLT Errors baseline 107.8 (12.3), 92–124 (104) 110.6 (14.7), 92–125 (117) t = − 0.46, p = 0.65
Set Shift Errors baseline 64.9 (10.1), 50–79 (68.5) 64.6 (12.7), 47–89 (65) t = 0.07, p = 0.95
NFI baseline 181.1 (36.6), 124–255 (180.5) 182.8 (43.1), 97–227 (189) t = − 0.10, p = 0.92
  1. aMean (SD) range (median); bNo (%). Note: GMLT CogState Groton Maze Learning Task, LACI/H lacunar infarct/ hemorrhage, LAH Less Affected Hand, MAH Most Affected Hand, MoCA Montreal Cognitive Assessment, NFI Neurobehavioral Functioning Inventory, NIHSS National Institute of Health Stroke Scale range 0-24; PACI/H partial anterior circulation infarct/ hemorrhage, POCI/H posterior circulation infarct/ hemorrhage, TACI/H total anterior circulation infarct/ hemorrhage