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Table 2 Motor and cognitive outcomes for the experimental and control groups at pre-test, post-test and one-month follow-up

From: Elements virtual rehabilitation improves motor, cognitive, and functional outcomes in adult stroke: evidence from a randomized controlled pilot study

  VR + TAU   TAU   Group effect on pre-post difference score (t or U, p)c Group effect on pre-test to follow-up difference score (t or U, p)c
Primary Outcomea Pre-test Post-test Follow-up Pre-post difference scoreb Effect size db Pre-test Post-test Follow-up Pre-post difference scoreb Effect size db
Motor
 BBT-MAH 21.8 (12.8) 39.1 (14.5) 40.8 (15.5) 17.3 (8.6), p < 0.001 1.3 21.5 (8.1) 29.8 (11.2) 30.9 (11.5) 8.4 (5.3), p < 0.001 0.9 21.50, 0.008* 23.00, 0.011*
 BBT-LAH 45.1 (7.9) 57.6 (5.4) 60.6 (5.6) 12.5 (7.7), p = 0.001 1.9 44.5 (8.3) 50.9 (8.2) 50.9 (7.8) 6.5 (5.7), p = 0.004 0.8 2.05, 0.054 −3.44, 0.003*
 BBT Total 66.9 (14.1) 96.7 (12.6) 101.4 (14.7) 29.8 (11.5), p < 0.001 2.2 65.9 (10.3) 80.7 (11.9) 81.8 (11.4) 14.8 (7.8), p < 0.001 1.3 3.52, 0.002* 9.50, < 0.001*
Cognitive
 MoCA 18.4 (2.50) 24.8 (2.6) 25.4 (2.6) 6.40 (1.3), p < 0.001 2.5 19.2 (4.0) 21.4 (3.6) 21.8 (3.5) 2.2 (0.9), p = 0.004 0.6 0.50, < 0.001* − 7.41, < 0.001*
 GMLT Errors 107.8 (12.3) 87.5 (9.5) 76.1 (10.5) 20.3 (8.4), p < 0.001 1.9 110.6 (14.7) 108.0 (13.2) 101.1 (14.5) 2.5 (6.1), p = 0.198 0.2 −5.57, < 0.001* 4.32, < 0.001*
 Set Shift Errors 64.9 (10.1) 46.9 (6.2) 33.3 (7.0) 18.0 (10.3), p < 0.001 2.2 64.6 (12.7) 61.0 (11.5) 58.9 (12.6) 3.5 (6.1), p = 0.082 0.3 −3.95, 0.001* 7.43, < 0.001*
  1. aMean (SD); bwithin-group dependent t-test comparison of pre-test vs. post-test; cbetween-group independent t-test comparison of VR+TAU vs. TAU; * p < Benjamini-Hochberg critical value. BBT Box and Blocks Test, GMLT CogState Groton Maze Learning Task, LAH Less Affected Hand, MAH Most Affected Hand, MoCA Montreal Cognitive Assessment, TAU Treatment as Usual, VR Virtual Rehabilitation