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Table 3 Functional outcomes for the experimental and control groups at pre-test, post-test and one-month follow-up

From: Elements virtual rehabilitation improves motor, cognitive, and functional outcomes in adult stroke: evidence from a randomized controlled pilot study

  VR + TAU   TAU   Group effect on pre-post difference score (t or U, p)c Group effect on pre-test to follow-up difference score (t or U, p)c
NFI Sub-scalea Pre-test Post-test Follow-up Pre-post difference scoreb Effect size db Pre-test Post- test Follow-up Pre-post difference scoreb Effect size db
Motor 32.2 (3.9) 24.4 (4.0) 21.5 (2.9) 7.8 (1.7), p < 0.001 2.0 30.6 (4.1) 27.5 (4.2) 26.7 (5.2) 3.1 (1.8),p < 0.001 0.8 6.00, < 0.001* 5.85, < 0.001*
Cognition 56.9 (18.1) 39.8 (14.2) 34.6 (12.6) 17.1 (7.6), p < 0.001 1.1 51.8 (19.2) 42.4 (14.9) 39.3 (13.7) 9.5 (6.5),p = 0.001 0.6 −2.50, 0.022* 2.33, 0.031*
Depression 32.6 (9.1) 24.5 (6.6) 22.1 (5.8) 8.1 (4.4), p < 0.001 1.0 33.9 (13.9) 30.6 (10.6) 28.2 (9.7) 3.4 (6.8),p = 0.130 0.3 −1.89, 0.075 1.82, 0.085
Somatic 20.4 (6.3) 16.4 (5.5) 16.2 (4.4) 4.0 (2.1),p < 0.001 0.7 19.7 (4.1) 17.3 (2.9) 18.3 (4.0) 2.5 (3.1),p = 0.025 0.7 −1.33, 0.200 2.02, 0.058
Commun 34.9 (6.5) 25.9 (6.9) 22.5 (5.3) 9.0 (4.0),p < 0.001 1.3 31.8 (12.0) 30.6 (10.6) 28.3 (9.8) 1.3 (5.6),p = 0.467 0.1 −3.62, 0.002* 4.62, < 0.001*
Aggression 15.8 (4.7) 14.6 (5.7) 13.9 (4.9) 1.2 (2.3), p = 0.612 0.2 14.6 (4.4) 14.2 (4.1) 13.6 (5.2) 0.4 (1.8), p = 0.831 0.1 0.89,0.383 0.98, 0.347
  1. aMean (SD); bwithin-group dependent t-test comparison of pre-test vs. post-test; cbetween-group independent t-test comparison of VR+TAU vs. TAU;. * p < Benjamini-Hochberg critical value. Commun: Communication; NFI Neurobehavioral Functioning Inventory, TAU Treatment as Usual, VR Virtual Rehabilitation