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Table 3 Statistical data of the effects of gait training on gait kinematic parameters from the baseline (pre) at the end of the rehabilitation period (post)

From: Walking to your right music: a randomized controlled trial on the novel use of treadmill plus music in Parkinson’s disease

Parameter time×group group pre post time F(1,24),p post-pre post-hoc p-value
F(1,48), p ICC (95%cl) within-group effect size between-group
GQI (%) 26, < 0.001 0.02 (−0.26 to 0.29) RAS 80 ± 9 89 ± 10 93, < 0.001 < 0.001 0.8 < 0.001
non-RAS 81 ± 9 84 ± 9 63, < 0.001 0.007 0.6
SSR (ratio) 8.7, 0.005 0.05 (−0.22 to 0.33) RAS 2.1 ± 0.2 2.0 ± 0.2 71, < 0.001 < 0.001 0.5 < 0.001
non-RAS 2 ± 0.2 1.9 ± 0.2 48, < 0.001 0.009 0.3
step cadence (Hz) 16, < 0.001 0.03 (−0.25 to 0.3) RAS 1.56 ± 0.2 1.4 ± 0.2 44, < 0.001 < 0.001 0.8 < 0.001
non-RAS 1.58 ± 0.2 1.5 ± 0.2 22, < 0.001 0.006 0.4
stride length (cm) 15, < 0.001 0.03 (−0.25 to 0.31) RAS 37 ± 4 50 ± 6 22, 0.009 0.005 0.9 0.01
non-RAS 36 ± 4 47 ± 5 8.2, 0.02 0.003 0.6
gait cycle duration (sec) 0.2, 0.5 0.07 (0.05 to 0.08) RAS 2.02 ± 0.2 1.77 ± 0.2 29, < 0.001 0.002 0.8 0.1
non-RAS 1.96 ± 0.2 1.79 ± 0.2 11, < 0.001 0.007 0.7
speed of gait (m/s) 0.2, 0.5 0.9 (0.05 to 0.1) RAS 0.7 ± 0.1 0.9 ± 0.1 20, < 0.001 0.004 0.8 0.1
non-RAS 0.6 ± 0.1 0.8 ± 0.1 15, < 0.001 0.006 0.8
  1. UPDRS Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale, BBS Berg Balance Scale, FES Tinetti Falls Efficacy Scale, FGA functional gait assessment, TUG timed up-and-go test, GQI gait quality index, SSR stance-swing ratio, RAS rhythmic auditory stimulation, ICC(95%cl) intraclass correlation coefficient and its 95% confidence limits for test-retest reliability calculation