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Table 2 The means and 95% confidence intervals for each measurement of the clinical assessments, and the probabilities with the estimated effect sizes of the statistical analyses.

From: Distal versus proximal - an investigation on different supportive strategies by robots for upper limb rehabilitation after stroke: a randomized controlled trial

Assessment PRE POST 3MFU 1-way ANOVA 2-way ANCOVA
P (Partial η2)
Mean Value (95% Confidence Interval) P (Partial η2) Session Group S*G
FMA Full (Hand) 28.9 42.2 45.3 0.001### (0.274) 0.000ΔΔΔ(0.567) 0.879 (0.000) 0.920 (0.002)
(22.6–35.1) (35.9–48.5) (39.0–51.5)
FMA Full (Sleeve) 32.4 44.8 47.5 0.004## (0.229)
(25.9–38.9) (38.3–51.3) (41.0–54.0)
FMA-SE (Hand) 20.0 28.5 30.6 0.001### (0.270) 0.000ΔΔΔ(0.550) 0.793 (0.001) 0.825 (0.005)
(16.0–24.0) (24.4–32.5) (26.6–34.6)
FMA-SE (Sleeve) 21.7 30.7 31.5 0.001### (0.271)
(17.8–25.6) (26.8–34.6) (27.6–35.4)
FMA-WH (Hand) 8.9 13.7 14.7 0.005## (0.222) 0.000ΔΔΔ(0.362) 0.695 (0.002) 0.698 (0.009)
(6.3–11.4) (11.2–16.3) (12.1–17.2)
FMA-WH (Sleeve) 10.7 14.1 16.1 0.075 (0.116)
(7.3–14.0) (10.8–17.5) (12.7–19.4)
ARAT (Hand) 15.6 26.5 26.9 0.036# (0.147) 0.000ΔΔΔ (0.396) 0.430 (0.080) 0.938 (0.002)
(8.8–22.4) (19.7–33.3) (20.1–33.7)
ARAT (Sleeve) 20.8 31.9 33.3 0.034# (0.149)
(13.6–28.0) (24.7–39.1) (26.1–40.5)
MAS-elbow (Hand) 1.5 0.9 0.7 0.033# (0.149) 0.000ΔΔΔ(0.191) 0.591 (0.003) 0.388 (0.023)
(1.1–2.0) (0.4–1.3) (0.3–1.2)
MAS-elbow (Sleeve) 1.1 0.8 0.7 0.288 (0.058)
(0.7–1.5) (0.4–1.2) (0.3–1.0)
MAS-wrist (Hand) 1.5 0.6 0.3 0.001### (0.295) 0.000ΔΔΔ(0.518) 0.000ΔΔΔ (0.319) 0.001ΔΔΔ (0.149)
(1.1–1.9) (0.2–1.0) (−0.1–0.7)
MAS-wrist (Sleeve) 1.3 0.9 0.9 0.272 (0.060)
(0.9–1.8) (0.5–1.4) (0.4–1.3)
MAS-finger (Hand) 1.3 0.5 0.4 0.004## (0.231) 0.000ΔΔΔ (0.367) 0.001ΔΔΔ (0.136) 0.067 (0.063)
(0.9–1.7) (0.0–0.9) (0.0–0.8)
MAS-finger (Sleeve) 1.4 1.0 0.9 0.319 (0.053)
(0.9–1.9) (0.5–1.5) (0.5–1.4)
  1. Differences with statistical significance are marked with superscripts beside the P values (‘#’ for 1-way-ANOVA intragroup tests, ‘Δ’ for 2-way ANCOVA tests on the group and session effects with the pre-assessment as the covariate). Significant levels are indicated as, 1 superscript for < 0.05, 2 superscripts for ≤0.01, and 3 superscripts for ≤0.001