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Table 1 Topics in the three periods identified by using the topic modeling algorithm. Topics in bold are those removed from the analysis. “N” is the number of publications per topic

From: Tracking the evolution of virtual reality applications to rehabilitation as a field of study

Topic Period 1: 1996 to 2005 (Total N = 418) Period 2: 2006 to 2014 (Total N = 1454) Period 3: 2015 to mid-2018 (Total N = 1269)
Topic Name N Topic Name N Topic Name N
1 Muscle Stimulation & Gait 29 Robotics & External Devices 130 Orthopedics & Biomechanics 125
2 Civil Engineering 23 Gait 100 Gait and Balance 68
3 Surgery & Medicine 14 Motor Imagery 92 Orthopedics & Civil Engineering 68
4 Technology for Rehabilitation 27 Technology for Rehabilitation 105 Robotics for Upper Extremity Rehabilitation 115
5 Biomechanics 23 EMG, Neural Transmission and Simulation 86 EMG, Neural Transmission and Simulation 71
6 Rehabilitation Interventions 76 Vision and Driving Simulations 88 International Health Care 67
7 Wheelchair and Driving Simulations 20 Speech, Language and Hearing 117 Gaming 76
8 Assistive Technologies 37 General Gaming 76 Measurement for Assessment 56
9 Computer Based Simulation 23 Civil Engineering 85 Gaming 78
10 Simulation for Functional Assessment and Teaching 31 Upper Extremity Rehabilitation 120 Simulation for Health Care Education 90
11 Ergonomics and Simulation 21 Cognitive Rehabilitation Assessment and Intervention 89 Assessment and Intervention 74
12 EMG, Neural Transmission & Simulation 30 Orthopedic Biomechanics 72 Meta-Analyses 82
13 VR-based Rehabilitation 15 Gaming 114 Cognitive Rehabilitation 93
14 Orthopedics and Gait 25 Computerized Adaptive Testing 61 Motor Rehabilitation 119
15 Speech, Language & Hearing 24 Muscle Biomechanics 119 Motor Imagery 87