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Table 3 Outcome measures pre- and post-intervention in groups A and B

From: Robot-assisted gait training for balance and lower extremity function in patients with infratentorial stroke: a single-blinded randomized controlled trial

 Group AGroup BFP, time effectP, group-by-time interactionP, baseline comparisons
Baseline8 weeksBaseline8 weeks
BBS36.89 ± 14.74 40.00 (27.00–49.00)43.11 ± 13.62 48.00 (35.00–53.00)33.00 ± 11.99 34.00 (21.00–42.75)41.88 ± 9.99 44.50 (31.50–50.75)0.4440.0020.5150.423
FSEOCOP VelML (mm/s)11.78 ± 7.78 10.47 (8.04–21.62)14.07 ± 8.67 12.60 (7.10–27.70)14.69 ± 5.38 14.11 (10.27–18.50)9.96 ± 2.56 9.59 (7.74–11.83)0.3890.5450.2100.210
COP VelAP (mm/s)18.17 ± 11.90 16.27 (12.75–32.74)21.17 ± 16.66 20.08 (11.17–53.22)25.56 ± 13.29 20.31 (17.38–37.37)19.35 ± 10.34 17.78 (10.60–24.02)0.9310.7930.1750.175
COP Area (mm2)99.13 ± 26.56102.95 (71.36–125.88)105.65 ± 38.55103.11 (66.90–138.71)146.28 ± 111.49108.45 (95.65–133.17)89.05 ± 19.37 90.18 (69.79–107.19)2.0740.1040.4420.442
FSECCOP VelML12.64 ± 7.21 9.90 (7.00–19.66)21.62 ± 30.27 8.28 (7.54–42.37)15.09 ± 6.00 14.18 (9.43–21.23)11.33 ± 3.37 10.64 (8.56–13.45)2.5370.5270.6570.657
COP VelAP17.88 ± 5.20 18.30 (13.35–22.19)31.29 ± 35.33 14.02 (12.65–58.57)30.28 ± 15.61 27.93 (17.86–42.74)26.12 ± 10.70 23.31 (16.84–34.60)1.7980.4940.6000.600
COP Area124.05 ± 49.10117.75 (92.09–155.72)118.82 ± 59.80102.60 (82.21–150.58)142.84 ± 78.93134.40 (71.68–218.84)112.48 ± 55.39105.98 (81.52–115.11)1.3370.2620.5740.574
FTEOCOP VelML39.85 ± 22.22 37.68 (17.42–60.22)28.34 ± 13.00 24.82 (17.63–43.52)46.24 ± 18.72 43.59 (29.42–64.39)37.03 ± 18.07 41.21 (18.18–53.80)0.0200.2390.5730.573
COP VelAP45.59 ± 27.43 46.26 (19.65–71.78)37.46 ± 26.76 28.86 (16.61–63.59)44.05 ± 21.02 41.73 (28.07–61.19)40.22 ± 23.16 47.37 (16.40–60.47)0.0280.6500.7550.755
COP Area173.17 ± 71.37150.60 (114.56–246.49)168.70 ± 73.69177.01 (89.24–234.05)168.13 ± 77.28132.55 (104.89–249.15)131.89 ± 39.47154.40 (89.65–162.88)0.9260.4460.8760.876
FTECCOP VelML46.05 ± 21.08 50.45 (23.12–56.45)30.17 ± 22.01 19.84 (15.23–43.75)69.20 ± 28.14 78.56 (39.36–89.67)62.06 ± 22.64 62.54 (40.13–83.52)0.1760.3200.2860.286
COP VelAP47.33 ± 29.39 41.97 (20.99–62.94)23.18 ± 8.09 19.71 (17.40–19.71)62.88 ± 25.69 68.35 (37.23–83.05)50.27 ± 13.92 47.81 (38.45–64.55)0.2650.1620.4130.413
COP Area284.09 ± 217.10228.70 (112.50–363.87)117.79 ± 19.68127.52 (103.87–121.03)193.41 ± 67.05224.23 (116.49–246.71)134.36 ± 15.12151.82 (125.63–164.56)0.6480.1750.7860.786
TIS13.89 ± 4.37 14.00 (11.00–17.50)15.44 ± 3.28 16.00 (13.00–18.00)13.00 ± 3.16 13.50 (9.50–16.25)17.62 ± 1.85 17.50 (16.25–18.75)3.9350.0010.0660.606
FMA-LE25.56 ± 5.32 27.00 (21.50–29.50)27.11 ± 3.92 28.00 (23.00–30.50)26.50 ± 3.70 28.50 (22.00–29.00)29.00 ± 3.07 29.00 (26.00–31.25)0.4220.0140.5260.673
FAC3.00 ± 1.32 4.00 (1.50–4.00)3.56 ± 1.33 4.00 (2.50–4.50)2.50 ± 1.20 2.50 (1.25–3.75)3.25 ± 0.71 3.00 (3.00–4.00)0.2050.0080.6570.423
10MWT (m/s)Self-selected walking speed0.49 ± 0.41 0.66 (0.07–0.88)0.64 ± 0.42 0.76 (0.23–0.99)0.25 ± 0.28 0.19 (0.02–0.49)0.37 ± 0.32 0.26 (0.11–0.72)0.0330.0670.8580.333
Fast walking speed0.68 ± 0.59 0.87 (0.07–1.26)0.97 ± 0.67 1.09 (0.26–1.48)0.40 ± 0.40 0.22 (0.05–0.78)0.51 ± 0.49 0.32 (0.11–1.09)0.7310.0830.4060.333
FES59.44 ± 19.66 63.00 (46.50–75.00)72.67 ± 25.52 79.00 (55.00–93.00)45.88 ± 18.08 44.50 (32.50–59.00)58.37 ± 13.36 57.50 (49.00–68.75)0.0060.0120.9370.139
SARAGait3.78 ± 1.92 4.00 (2.00–5.50)3.00 ± 1.58 2.00 (2.00–4.00)4.13 ± 1.80 5.00 (2.00–5.75)3.50 ± 1.78 3.00 (2.00–5.50)0.0500.0570.8250.650
Stance2.56 ± 1.24 2.00 (2.00–3.50)1.89 ± 1.17 2.00 (1.00–3.00)2.38 ± 1.30 2.50 (1.00–3.75)2.00 ± 0.93 2.00 (1.00–3.00)0.2260.1100.6410.765
Sitting0.11 ± 0.33 0.00 (0.00–0.00)0.00 ± 0.00 0.00 (0.00–0.00)0.00 ± 0.00 0.00 (0.00–0.00)0.00 ± 0.00 0.00 (0.00–0.00)0.8820.3620.3620.346
  1. All data are presented as the mean ± standard deviation and median (interquartile range). BBS Berg Balance Scale, COP center of pressure, FSEO feet separated, eyes open, FSEC feet separated, eyes closed, FTEO feet together, eyes open, FTEC feet together, eyes closed, TIS Trunk Impairment Scale, FMA-LE lower extremity Fugl-Meyer Assessment, FAC Functional Ambulation Category, 10MWT 10-m walking test, FES Falls Efficacy Scale, SARA Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia