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Table 4 Secondary outcome measures pre- and post-intervention in the RAGT+CPT and CPT+CPT interventions

From: Robot-assisted gait training for balance and lower extremity function in patients with infratentorial stroke: a single-blinded randomized controlled trial

 RAGT+CPTCPT+CPTP, group-by-time interaction
Pre-testPost-testP, withinPre-testPost-testP, within
TIS14.35 ± 3.32 15.00 (12.00–16.50)16.18 ± 3.36 17.00 (14.50–18.50)0.00314.00 ± 3.62 14.00 (10.50–17.00)15.18 ± 2.58 15.00 (14.00–16.50)0.0400.268
FMA-LE26.06 ± 4.41 28.00 (22.00–29.00)28.41 ± 3.99 29.00 (25.00–32.00)0.00227.24 ± 4.24 28.00 (23.00–30.50)26.88 ± 3.57 28.00 (23.00–29.50)0.4770.001
FAC2.88 ± 1.17 3.00 (2.00–4.00)3.41 ± 1.06 4.00 (3.00–4.00)0.0113.06 ± 1.35 3.00 (2.00–4.00)3.18 ± 1.24 3.00 (2.00–4.00)0.1570.140
10MWT (m/s)Self-selected speed0.53 ± 0.31 0.62 (0.24–0.82)0.61 ± 0.38 0.69 (0.18–0.86)0.0870.58 ± 0.39 0.64 (0.19–0.87)0.59 ± 0.34 0.60 (0.31–0.80)0.4330.603
Fastest speed0.71 ± 0.47 0.87 (0.27–1.11)0.96 ± 0.55 1.01 (0.45–1.26)0.0600.84 ± 0.57 0.81 (0.23–1.22)0.85 ± 0.57 0.98 (0.36–1.23)0.9250.400
FES56.88 ± 15.55 57.00 (49.50–65.00)67.82 ± 21.36 71.00 (50.00–86.50)0.01861.94 ± 26.09 63.00 (39.50–86.50)63.88 ± 21.41 62.00 (50.00–80.00)0.6290.150
SARAGait3.76 ± 1.86 4.00 (2.00–5.50)3.18 ± 1.63 2.00 (2.00–4.00)0.0203.94 ± 1.82 3.00 (2.00–5.00)3.29 ± 1.72 2.00 (2.00–5.00)0.0390.033
Stance2.53 ± 1.18 2.00 (2.00–3.50)1.76 ± 0.90 2.00 (1.00–2.50)0.0062.47 ± 1.23 2.00 (1.00–3.00)2.00 ± 1.12 2.00 (1.00–3.00)0.1300.002
Sitting0.06 ± 0.24 0.00 (0.00–0.00)0.06 ± 0.24 0.00 (0.00–0.00)1.0000.06 ± 0.24 0.00 (0.00–0.00)0.06 ± 0.24 0.00 (0.00–0.00)1.0000.325
  1. All data are presented as the mean ± standard deviation and median (interquartile range). 10MWT 10-m walking test, FAC Functional Ambulation Category, FES Falls Efficacy Scale, FMA-LE lower extremity Fugl-Meyer Assessment, CPT conventional physical therapy, RAGT robot-assisted gait training, SARA Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia, TIS Trunk Impairment Scale