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Table 3 Neurological and clinical assessment results, for the 10 patient’s cohort for EMGb and Rb Lokomat trainings groups as mean ± sd. In the last columns statistical comparison results are reported: Pre vs Post comparison for each BFBb and Rb group. p values or “ns”, if statistical comparison is not significant, are reported for each statistical comparison performed

From: Influences of the biofeedback content on robotic post-stroke gait rehabilitation: electromyographic vs joint torque biofeedback

  EMGb Rb Statistical Comparison
Barthel Index EMGb Rb
  Pre Post Pre Post Pre vs Post Pre vs Post
Mean 27,43 41,04 30,36 42,88 0.007 ns
sd 16,97 15,37 11,88 11,68
   Trunk Control test EMGb Rb
  Pre Post Pre Post Pre vs Post Pre vs Post
Mean 32,07 47,48 33,65 44,6 0.005 0.011
sd 18,12 17,94 14,21 15,48
 Functional Ambulation Category EMGb Rb
  Pre Post Pre Post Pre vs Post Pre vs Post
Mean 0,74 1,66 0,85 1,41 0.015 0.014
sd 0,63 0,85 0,64 0,41
   Berg Balance Scale EMGb Rb
  Pre Post Pre Post Pre vs Post Pre vs Post
Mean 11,06 16,13 11,2 16,59 ns ns
sd 4,59 6,24 3,31 3,54
   Visual Analogue Scale EMGb Rb
  Pre Post Pre Post Pre vs Post Pre vs Post
Mean 5,18 1,66 4,34 2,2 0.011 ns
sd 3,1 1,55 1,61 0,98