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Table 2 Gait (speed and symmetry) and quadriceps strength (inter-limb symmetry, 4-wks/pre-ACLR ratio) outcomes, and effects of group and time

From: Functional electrical stimulation following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a randomized controlled pilot study

Variable Time FES (n = 10) NMES (n = 13) Time effect Group effect Time x Group effect
Gait speed (m/sec) Pre-ACLR 1.16 ± 0.21 1.20 ± 0.22 < 0.001 0.344 0.023
(95% CI 1.03–1.29) (95% CI 1.08–1.32)
1-wk 0.89 ± 0.17 0.77 ± 0.27
(95% CI 0.78–1.0) (95% CI 0.6–0.94)
4-wks 1.26 ± 0.13 1.11 ± 0.27
(95% CI 1.17–1.34) (95% CI 0.96–1.26)
Gait symmetry operated/non- operated limb (ratio) Pre-ACLR 1.01 ± 0.03 1.00 ± 0.04 < 0.001 0.500 0.259
(95% CI 0.99–1.03) (95% CI 0.98–1.02)
1-wk 0.93 ± 0.08 0.93 ± 0.08
(95% CI 0.88–0.98) (95% CI 0.87–0.99)
4-wks 1.01 ± 0.03 0.97 ± 0.06
(95% CI 0.99–1.03) (95% CI 0.94–1.0)
Peak strength 4-wks/pre-ACLR (ratio) 4-wks 0.82 ± 0.27 0.47 ± 0.17 0.020
(95% CI 0.64–0.99) (95% CI 0.37–0.56)
Peak strength symmetry operated/non- operated limb (ratio) Pre-ACLR 0.86 ± 0.20 0.74 ± 0.25 < 0.001 0.038 0.040
(95% CI 0.73–0.98) (95% CI 0.6, 0.88)
4-wks 0.63 ± 0.15 0.39 ± 0.18
(95% CI 0.53–0.73) (95% CI 0.29–0.49)