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Table 3 Correlations between smoothness (SPARC) and questionnaires

From: Movement smoothness during a functional mobility task in subjects with Parkinson’s disease and freezing of gait – an analysis using inertial measurement units

Questionnaires TUG phase SPARC variable r r2 p
Speech (from UPDRS III) Turn and stand to sit SPARC Acc A total − 0.5312 0.2822 0.0021
  Turn and stand to sit SPARC Acc L ML −0.4927 0.2428 0.0049
  Turn and stand to sit SPARC Acc A AP −0.4832 0.2335 0.0059
  Turn and stand to sit SPARC Acc A V −0.4782 0.2287 0.0065
  Turn and stand to sit SPARC Acc L AP −0.4718 0.2226 0.0074
  Turn and stand to sit SPARC Acc A ML −0.4616 0.2131 0.0089
  Turn and stand to sit SPARC Acc L total −0.4239 0.1797 0.0175
  Walk 1 SPARC Acc L ML −0.4216 0.1777 0.0182
  Walk 1 SPARC Acc L V −0.3872 0.1500 0.0314
  Walk 1 SPARC Acc L total −0.3857 0.1488 0.0321
Tremor at Rest (from UPDRS III) Walk 1 SPARC Acc A V 0.3990 0.1592 0.0262
  Walk 1 SPARC Acc A total 0.3873 0.1500 0.0314
  Walk 1 SPARC Acc L AP 0.3648 0.1331 0.0436
  Walk 1 SPARC Acc L total 0.3643 0.1327 0.0439
  Walk 2 SPARC Acc A total 0.3596 0.1293 0.0469
  Walk 1 SPARC Acc A AP 0.3563 0.1269 0.0491
Finger Taps (from UPDRS III) Sit to stand SPARC Acc A ML −0.3598 0.1294 0.0468
Alternating Movements of Hands (from UPDRS III) Sit to stand SPARC Acc A AP −0.4761 0.2267 0.0068
  Turn and stand to sit SPARC Acc L ML −0.4281 0.1833 0.0163
  Sit to stand SPARC Acc A ML −0.4273 0.1825 0.0165
  Turn and stand to sit SPARC Acc A AP −0.4133 0.1708 0.0208
  Sit to stand SPARC Acc L V −0.4124 0.1701 0.0211
  Turn and stand to sit SPARC Acc A V −0.4023 0.1618 0.0249
  Turn and stand to sit SPARC Acc A total −0.3982 0.1586 0.0265
  Turn and stand to sit SPARC Acc A ML −0.3887 0.1511 0.0307
  Sit to stand SPARC Acc L ML −0.3778 0.1427 0.0361
  Sit to stand SPARC Acc L AP −0.3707 0.1374 0.0401
  Walk 1 SPARC Acc L V − 0.3671 0.1347 0.0422
  Turn and stand to sit SPARC Acc L AP −0.3565 0.1271 0.0490
Leg Agility (from UPDRS III) Walk 1 SPARC Acc L V −0.4387 0.1925 0.0136
  Sit to stand SPARC Acc A ML −0.4090 0.1672 0.0224
  Sit to stand SPARC Acc L V −0.3867 0.1495 0.0316
  Turn and stand to sit SPARC Acc A ML −0.3654 0.1335 0.0433
  Sit to stand SPARC Acc L AP −0.3566 0.1272 0.0489
Arising from Chair (from UPDRS III) Turn and stand to sit SPARC Acc A total −0.6233 0.3885 0.0002
  Turn and stand to sit SPARC Acc A AP −0.6098 0.3718 0.0003
  Turn and stand to sit SPARC Acc A ML −0.6054 0.3666 0.0003
  Walk 1 SPARC Acc L total −0.5838 0.3408 0.0006
  Walk 1 SPARC Acc L V −0.5680 0.3227 0.0009
  Turn and stand to sit SPARC Acc A V −0.5570 0.3102 0.0011
  Walk 1 SPARC Acc L ML −0.5385 0.2900 0.0018
  Turn and stand to sit SPARC Acc L AP −0.5107 0.2608 0.0033
  Turn and stand to sit SPARC Acc L total −0.5065 0.2565 0.0036
  Full TUG SPARC Acc L V −0.4878 0.2380 0.0054
  Walk 1 SPARC Acc A ML −0.4577 0.2095 0.0096
  Turn and stand to sit SPARC Acc L ML −0.4542 0.2063 0.0103
  Walk 1 SPARC Acc A AP −0.4487 0.2013 0.0113
  Turn and stand to sit SPARC Acc L V − 0.4471 0.1999 0.0117
  Walk 1 SPARC Acc L AP −0.3663 0.1342 0.0427
  Walk 1 SPARC Acc A total −0.3612 0.1305 0.0459
Posture (from UPDRS III) Full TUG SPARC Acc L ML −0.4779 0.2284 0.0065
  Full TUG SPARC Acc A ML −0.3838 0.1473 0.0330
  Sit to stand SPARC Acc L V −0.3710 0.1376 0.0399
  Full TUG SPARC Acc L V −0.3652 0.1334 0.0434
Gait (from UPDRS III) Full TUG SPARC Acc A AP −0.3617 0.1308 0.0456
Postural stability (from UPDRS III) Turn SPARC Acc L total −0.6492 0.4215 0.0001
  Turn SPARC Acc L V −0.6424 0.4127 0.0001
  Turn SPARC Acc L AP −0.6270 0.3932 0.0002
  Turn SPARC Acc A ML −0.5975 0.3570 0.0004
  Turn SPARC Acc L ML −0.5498 0.3023 0.0014
  Full TUG SPARC Acc L ML − 0.5497 0.3022 0.0014
  Full TUG SPARC Acc A V −0.5353 0.2865 0.0019
  Sit to stand SPARC Acc L AP −0.5231 0.2736 0.0025
  Turn SPARC Acc A total −0.5186 0.2689 0.0028
  Full TUG SPARC Acc L V −0.4911 0.2412 0.0050
  Full TUG SPARC Acc A total −0.4865 0.2367 0.0055
  Full TUG SPARC Acc A ML −0.4832 0.2335 0.0059
  Turn SPARC Acc A V −0.4730 0.2237 0.0072
  Full TUG SPARC Acc A AP −0.4525 0.2047 0.0106
  Sit to stand SPARC Acc A ML −0.4486 0.2012 0.0114
  Turn SPARC Acc A AP −0.4343 0.1886 0.0146
  Sit to stand SPARC Acc L V −0.4306 0.1855 0.0156
  Full TUG SPARC Acc L total −0.4272 0.1825 0.0165
  Sit to stand SPARC Acc A V −0.4130 0.1706 0.0209
  Sit to stand SPARC Acc A total −0.3803 0.1446 0.0348
Body bradykinesia and hypokinesia (from UPDRS III) Walk 1 SPARC Acc L V −0.4633 0.2146 0.0087
  Walk 1 SPARC Acc L total −0.4499 0.2024 0.0111
  Walk 1 SPARC Acc L ML −0.4092 0.1674 0.0223
  Full TUG SPARC Acc L V −0.4020 0.1616 0.0250
  Walk 1 SPARC Acc A ML −0.3877 0.1503 0.0312
  Walk 1 SPARC Acc L AP −0.3804 0.1447 0.0348
  Full TUG SPARC Acc A ML −0.3746 0.1403 0.0379
  Turn and stand to sit SPARC Acc A ML −0.3701 0.1370 0.0404
Sum of Tremor (from UPDRS III) Walk 1 SPARC Acc A V 0.3583 0.1284 0.0478
UPDRS III Turn and stand to sit SPARC Acc L ML −0.3557 0.1265 0.0495
MMSE Walk 1 SPARC Acc L ML 0.3951 0.1561 0.0278
  Sit to stand SPARC Acc L ML 0.3802 0.1445 0.0349
  Turn and stand to sit SPARC Acc L AP 0.3642 0.1326 0.0440
  Sit to stand SPARC Acc A ML 0.3583 0.1284 0.0478
  Walk 1 SPARC Acc L V 0.3556 0.1265 0.0496
H&Y Full TUG SPARC Acc L V −0.4786 0.2291 0.0065
  Full TUG SPARC Acc A ML −0.4623 0.2137 0.0088
  Full TUG SPARC Acc A AP −0.4527 0.2050 0.0105
  Full TUG SPARC Acc A total −0.3775 0.1425 0.0363
  Turn and stand to sit SPARC Acc L total −0.3687 0.1359 0.0413
  Turn SPARC Acc A ML −0.3680 0.1355 0.0416
  Turn and stand to sit SPARC Acc A ML −0.3616 0.1307 0.0457
  Full TUG SPARC Acc A V −0.3581 0.1282 0.0479
  Turn and stand to sit SPARC Acc A total −0.3580 0.1281 0.0480
FOG-Q Turn and stand to sit SPARC Acc A total −0.5420 0.2938 0.0016
  Turn and stand to sit SPARC Acc A ML −0.5302 0.2811 0.0022
  Turn and stand to sit SPARC Acc A AP −0.5203 0.2707 0.0027
  Turn and stand to sit SPARC Acc A V −0.5110 0.2612 0.0033
  Turn and stand to sit SPARC Acc L AP −0.5096 0.2597 0.0034
  Turn and stand to sit SPARC Acc L total −0.4538 0.2059 0.0104
  Full TUG SPARC Acc A ML −0.4398 0.1934 0.0133
  Turn and stand to sit SPARC Acc L ML −0.4336 0.1880 0.0148
  Walk 1 SPARC Acc L V −0.4197 0.1761 0.0188
  Full TUG SPARC Acc L V −0.4188 0.1754 0.0190
  Walk 1 SPARC Acc L ML −0.4079 0.1664 0.0227
  Walk 1 SPARC Acc L total −0.4009 0.1607 0.0254
  Walk 2 SPARC Acc L V −0.3752 0.1408 0.0375
  Walk 1 SPARC Acc A ML −0.3735 0.1395 0.0385
  1. Abbreviations. Acc L linear acceleration, Acc A angular acceleration, V vertical, ML mediolateral, AP anteroposterior, PD Parkinson Disease, MMSE Mini Mental State Examination, H& Hoehn & Yahr scale, UPDRS III motor part of the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale, FOG-Q Freezing of Gait Questionnaire, TUG Timed up and Go test
  2. Note. Pearson’s correlations (p < 0.05)