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Table 1 Participant characteristics

From: Correction to: Does transcranial direct current stimulation improve functional locomotion in people with Parkinson’s disease? A systematic review and meta-analysis

StudyTotal NAge (yrs)GenderPD Duration (yrs)UPDRS Part III at BaselineMedicationDBS TreatmentFOG Test
Alizad [42]8NATotal: 3F, 5 MNANANANONA
Benninger [43]25Total: 63.9 ± 8.7Active: 4F, 9 M
Sham: 5F, 7 M
Active: 10.6 ± 7.1
Sham: 9.1 ± 3.3
Active: 22.2 ± 8.7
Sham: 17.5 ± 8.0
OnNOPatients with severe freezing or unable to walk 10 m were excluded
Capacci [44]7Total: 60.9 ± 9Total: 4F, 3 MTotal: 16.8 ± 4.0NANANONA
Costa-Ribeiro [45]22Active: 61.1 ± 9.1;
Sham: 62.0 ± 16.7
Active: 3F, 8 M
Sham: 4F, 7 M
Active: 6.1 ± 3.8
Sham: 6.3 ± 3.7
Active: 19.0
Sham: 19.1
OnNOFOG-Q(> 15 points) were excluded
Costa-Ribeiro [46]22Active: 61.1 ± 9.1
Sham: 62.0 ± 16.7
Active: 3F, 8 M
Sham: 4F, 7 M
Active: 6.1 ± 3.8
Sham: 6.3 ± 3.7
Active: 19.0 ± 4.9
Sham: 17.6 ± 5.1
OnNOPatients were excluded when they presented severe freezing according the FOG-Q
Criminger [47]16Total: 68.1 ± 9.8Total: 4F, 12 MTotal: 8.7 ± 9.8Total: 23.4 ± 9.7OnNONA
da Silva [48]17Active: 66.0 ± 5.0
Sham: 66.0 ± 10.0
Active: 4F, 4 M
Sham: 3F, 6 M
Active: 6.0 ± 6.0
Sham: 5.0 ± 1.0
NANANONA
Dagan [49]20Total: 68.8 ± 6.8Total: 17 M, 3 FTotal: 9.0 ± 5.7Total: 39.7 ± 14.6OnNOFOG-Q: 20.5 ± 4.9
FOG-provoking test scores: 14.2 ± 8.00
Fernández-Lago [50]18Total: 56.7 ± 11.6Total: 7F, 11 MTotal: 6.2 ± 3.7Total: 21.17 ± 11.3OnNONA
Kaski [51]16NANANANAOnNOPatients with severe freezing were excluded
Lattari [52]17Total: 67.2 ± 10.0Total: 4F, 13 MTotal: 7.1 ± 2.7Total: 18.0 ± 99.0OnNONA
Mak [53]18NANANANANANONA
Manenti [54]10Total: 67.1 ± 7.2Total: 4F, 6 MTotal: 8.1 ± 3.5Total: 13.3 ± 5.7OnNONA
Schabrun [55]16Active: 72.0 ± 4.9
Sham: 63.0 ± 11.0
Active: 8 M
Sham: 6F, 2 M
Active: 6.9 ± 4.4
Sham: 4.6 ± 3.9
Active: 47.7 ± 7.5
Sham: 37.7 ± 9.8
OnNONA
Swank [56]10Total: 68.7 ± 10.2Total: 2F, 8 MTotal: 7.9 ± 7.1Total: 37.0 ± 12.9OnNONA
Valentino [57]10Total: 72.3 ± 3.6Total: 5F, 5 MTotal: 11.0 ± 4.9Total: 32.0 ± 10.3OnNOFOG-Q: 15.3 ± 2.7
Verheyden [58]20NANATotal: 9.0 ± 4.0Total: 16.0 ± 5.0OnNONA
Yotnuengnit [59]53Active: 68.2 ± 9.8
Sham: 62.7 ± 8.8
Active: 6F, 11 M
Sham: 6F, 12 M
Active: 9.4 ± 5.3
Sham: 6.6 ± 3.6
Active: 11.9 ± 4.7
Sham: 11.2 ± 4.0
OnNONA
  1. Note: Data for age and PD duration are mean ± standard deviation
  2. Abbreviations: Active active tDCS protocols, DBS deep brain stimulation, F female, FOG Freezing of gait, FOG-Q Freezing of gait questionnaire, M male, NA not applicable, PD Duration time since PD diagnosis, UPDRS the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale