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Table 4 Perceived difficulty, additional temporal measures, and braking force

From: Effects of extended powered knee prosthesis stance time via visual feedback on gait symmetry of individuals with unilateral amputation: a preliminary study

  Prescribed Prosthesis Powered Prosthesis ANOVA Results*
None Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 None Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Device Main Effect Feedback Main Effect Interaction Effect
Target-hitting accuracy (s) - 0.07± 0.05 0.06± 0.05 0.06± 0.04 - 0.08± 0.08 0.07± 0.06 0.05± 0.03 0.833 0.624 0.352
Perceived Difficulty 1±1 3±2 3±1 4±1 2±2c 3±1b 4±1ab 5±1a 0.157 <0.001 0.639
Stride Time (s)
 Prosthesis side 1.3±0.1 1.3±0.01 1.4±0.1 1.4±0.1 1.4±0.1b 1.3±0.1b 1.4±0.1ab 1.5±0.1a 0.243 0.003 0.959
 Intact side 1.3±0.1 1.3±0.01 1.4±0.1 1.4±0.2 1.4±0.1b 1.3±0.1b 1.4±0.1ab 1.5±0.1a 0.183 0.003 0.973
Normalized Stance Time (% stride)
 Prosthesis side 64±3 64±3 64±3 64±3 62±2 63±2 63±2 63±1 0.400 0.519 0.645
 Intact side 71±2 71±1 70±1 68±1 72±2a 71±2a 71±2ab 69±2b 0.528 0.005 0.872
Normalized Swing Time (% stride)
 Prosthesis side 36±3 36±3 36±3 36±3 38±2 37±2 37±2 37±1 0.400 0.519 0.645
 Intact side 29±2 29±1 30±1 32±1 28±2b 29±2b 30±2ab 31±2a 0.405 0.007 0.749
Peak Braking Force (W/kg)
 Prosthesis side 0.6±0.2 0.6±0.2 0.6±0.2 0.7±0.2 0.7±0.2 0.7±0.2 0.7±0.2 0.7±0.2 0.541 0.272 0.866
 Intact side 1.0±0.3 0.9±0.3 1.0±0.3 1.0±0.3 1.2±0.2 1.1±0.2 1.2±0.2 1.3±0.2 0.397 0.056 0.732
  1. *Conditions without the same superscript letter (a-c) are significantly different with Tukey’s multiple comparisons adjustment (alpha = 0.05). No interaction effects were significant in this study, so all superscripts correspond to the feedback main effect and are included in only the powered prosthesis columns for simplicity