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Table 2 Main characteristics and outcomes of the reviewed articles

From: Combining transcranial direct-current stimulation with gait training in patients with neurological disorders: a systematic review

Article Pathology; N for the intervention group Area of application and tDCS parameters (current density; duration) Number of sessions; intervals Design Order of application; control group Variables Gait rehabilitation treatment; duration Effect versus placebo (% difference, p)
Geroin et al., 2011 [23] Stroke;
N = 10.
A = PMI- affected LL, C = SO
to-CL;
DC: 0,04 mA/cm2; 7 min.
10 s;
2 weeks.
EV.1 = Pre
EV.2 = Post
EV.3 = 2 weeks post
ONLINE; Off since the beginning. 6MWT, 10MWT, BPG, FAC, RMI, MILS, MAS. Exoskeleton robot; 20 min. SNS
Manji et al., 2018 [24] Stroke;
N = 30.
(crossover design)
A = 3.5 cm anterior to Cz (SMA),
C = EOC; DC: 0.04 mA/cm2; 20 min.
7 s;
1 week
(3-day washout period)
EV.1 = Pre
EV.2 = Post
ONLINE;
UNK.
10MWT, TUG, FMA, POMA, TIS. Exoskeleton-robot; 20 min. ↓10MWT (9.09%, p = 0.046) and ↓TUG (5.29%, p = 0.026)
Yotnuengnit et al., 2017 [26] PD;
N = 17.
A = Cz (PMA-LL), C = SOA;
DC: 0.06 mA/cm2; 30 min.
6 s;
2 weeks.
EV.1 = Pre
EV.2 = Post
EV.3 = 2 weeks post
EV.4 = 6 weeks post
OFFLINE; Gradually off after 1 min. BPG, UPDRS. Conventional physiotherapy; 30 min. SNS
Chang, Kim, & Park., 2015 [18] Stroke;
N = 12
A = APC of TA (PMA-affected LL), C = SOA-CL;
A = 0.28 mA/cm2, C = 0.07 mA/cm2; 10 min.
10 s; 2 weeks. EV.1 = pre
EV.2 = 1 day post
ONLINE; Off after 15 s. MEP of TA, BPG, FMA, MILS, FAC, BBS Conventional physiotherapy; 30 min. MEPs: ↓Latency (8.61%, p = 0.000) and ↑Width (50.4%, p = 0.048);
↑FMA (6.27%, p = 0.023) and ↑MILS (6.9%, p = 0.031)
Raithatha et al., 2016 [17] SCI;
N = 9
A = PMA-LL,
C = SOA;
A = 0.08 mA/cm2, C = 0.06 mA/cm2; 20 min.
36 s; 12 weeks. EV.1 = pre
EV.2 = post
EV.3 = 4 weeks post
OFFLINE; Off after 30 s. MMT, 6MWT, 10MWT, TUG, BBS, SCIM-III. Exoskeleton robot; 1 h. ↑ MMT right at EV.2
(70.54%, p = 0.03) and EV.3 (91.5%, p = 0.01). MMT left: SNS
↑TUG in control group
↑6MWT in control group
Seo et al., 2017 [27] Stroke;
N = 9
A = lateral to CZ (PMI- affected LL), C = SOA-CL;
DC: 0.06 mA/cm2; 20 min.
10 s; 2 weeks. EV.1 = pre
EV.2 = post
EV.3 = 4 weeks post
OFFLINE; Off after 1 min. FAC, 10MWT, 6MWT, BBS, FMA, MRCS, MEP (not in EV3). Exoskeleton robot; 45 min. ↑FAC (44.5%, p = 0.031) at EV. 2 and ↑6MWT (60.35%, p = 0.038) at EV.3.
Costa-Ribeiro et al., 2017 [19] PD;
N = 11.
A = 2 cm anterior to CZ (PMA-LL),
C = SOA-CL;
CD: 0.06 mA/cm2; 13 min.
10 s; 4 weeks. EV.1 = pre EV.2 = post
EV.3 = 4 weeks post
OFFLINE; Off after 30 s. 10MWT, TUG, BPG, UPDRS part III (for motor deterioration), and UPDRS-Brad (bradykinesia), PDQ-39, BBS. Visual cueing; 30 min. SNS
Kumru et al., 2016 [16] SCI;
N = 12.
A = PMA-LL (vertex), C = SOA non-dominant;
CD: 0.06 mA/cm2; 20 min.
20 s; 4 weeks. EV.1 = pre EV.2 = post EV.3 = 4 weeks post ONLINE; Off after 30 s. LEMS (not at EV3), 10MWT, WISCI. Exoskeleton robot; 30 min. SNS
  1. 10MWT 10-m walk test, 6MWT 6-min walking test, A anode, APC affected pre-central convolution, BBS Berg Balance scale, BPG biomechanical parameters of gait, C cathode, CD Current density, PD Parkinson’s disease, CL contra-lateral, CZ Cz area in accordance with the “International 10–20 System (EEC)”, EOC exterior occipital crest, EV evaluation, FAC functional ambulation categories, FMA Fugl-Meyer assessment, LEMS lower extremity motor score, LL lower limb, MAS modified Ashworth scale, MEP motor-evoked potential, MILS Motricity Index leg subscore, MMT manual muscle testing, MRCS Medical Research Council scale, OFFLINE tDCS applied before the intervention, PDQ-39 Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire-39, PMA primary motor area, POMA performance-oriented mobility assessment, RMI rivermead mobility index, SCI spinal cord injury, SCIM-III Spinal Cord Injury Measure, SMA supplementary motor area, SNS Statistically non-significant, SOA supra-orbital area, TA tibial anterior, TIS trunk impairment scale, TUG Timed Up and Go test, UL-MT upper limb motor task, UNK unknown, UPDRS unified Parkinson’s disease rating scale, WISCI walking index for spinal cord independence