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Table 2 Demographic and clinical characteristics of the participants

From: Effects of virtual reality-based planar motion exercises on upper extremity function, range of motion, and health-related quality of life: a multicenter, single-blinded, randomized, controlled pilot study

Characteristics SB group (n = 12) CON group (n = 13) P-value
Demographic characteristics
 Age, years 53.5 ± 13.0 51.5 ± 16.7 0.397 a
 Sex, male 7 (53.8) 8 (61.5) 0.888 b
 Dominant hand, right 13 (100) 10 (76.9) 0.220 b
Stroke characteristics
 Ischemia 5 (38.5) 8 (61.5) 0.813 b
 Time from stroke, days 982.3 ± 1473.3 533.5 ± 635.3 0.331 a
Clinical characteristics
 MRC scale shoulder flexor 2.0 ± 0.0 2.2 ± 0.6 0.511 a
 MRC scale shoulder extensor 2.5 ± 0.5 2.6 ± 0.9 0.287 a
 MRC scale elbow flexor 1.8 ± 0.4 2.2 ± 0.8 0.920 a
 MRC scale elbow extensor 2.0 ± 0.7 2.2 ± 0.9 0.579 a
 FMA-total score 16.8 ± 7.3 19.9 ± 9.9 0.448 a
  1. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation or number (%)
  2. SB Smart Board intervention, CON Conventional intervention, MRC Medical Research Council, FMA Fugl–Meyer assessment
  3. a Mann–Whitney U test, b Fisher’s exact test