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Table 3 Changes in FMA, WMFT, AROM, and MBI scores and repeated measures ANCOVA outcomes

From: Effects of virtual reality-based planar motion exercises on upper extremity function, range of motion, and health-related quality of life: a multicenter, single-blinded, randomized, controlled pilot study

  SB group (n = 12) CON group (n = 13) RM ANCOVA
T0 T1 Change (T1-T0) p -value T2 Change (T2-T0) p-value T0 T1 Change (T1-T0) p-value T2 Change (T2-T0) p-value F p-value
FMA-total 17.1 ± 7.5 19.0 ± 7.5 1.9 ± 2.8 0.036 19.6 ± 7.5 2.5 ± 3.7 0.014 19.9 ± 9.9 22.0 ± 10.3 2.1 ± 2.7 0.018 25.50 ± 11.8 5.6 ± 8.6 0.012 0.971 0.387
FMA-prox 13.8 ± 3.7 14.9 ± 3.2 1.2 ± 1.8 0.041 15.0 ± 3.0 1.3 ± 2.1 0.041 16.9 ± 6.5 18.4 ± 6.6 1.5 ± 1.8 0.018 19.9 ± 7.1 3.0 ± 4.6 0.035 1.194 0.301
FMA-dist 2.3 ± 3.5 2.9 ± 3.6 0.6 ± 0.9 0.034 3.4 ± 3.7 1.1 ± 1.8 0.024 1.8 ± 2.8 2.2 ± 3.1 0.4 ± 0.9 0.102 4.0 ± 4.2 2.2 ± 3.6 0.018 0.787 0.462
FMA-coor 1.0 ± 1.8 1.3 ± 2.0 0.3 ± 0.9 0.180 1.3 ± 2.1 0.3 ± 0.9 0.180 1.4 ± 1.8 1.5 ± 1.9 0.1 ± 0.6 0.655 1.7 ± 1.9 0.3 ± 1.2 0.414 0.649 0.528
WMFT-FAS 15.0 ± 10.4 19.3 ± 11.1 4.3 ± 5.9 0.012 20.3 ± 11.0 5.3 ± 6.6 0.008 19.6 ± 14.0 24.4 ± 12.9 4.8 ± 5.9 0.003 29.7 ± 15.1 10.1 ± 10.1 0.001 1.451 0.246
WMFT-time (log) 3.1 ± 0.1 3.01 ± 0.1 −0.1 ± 0.1 0.002 3.0 ± 0.1 −0.1 ± 0.1 0.026 3.0 ± 0.2 3.0 ± 0.2 −0.0 ± 0.1 0.016 2.9 ± 0.2 −0.1 ± 0.1 0.023 0.425 0.577
AROM-Sf 68.8 ± 39.9 88.3 ± 45.7 19.6 ± 11.4 0.004 90.0 ± 44.5 21.3 ± 17.1 0.011 85.8 ± 45.4 95.8 ± 44.9 10.0 ± 10.8 0.016 107.3 ± 49.4 21.5 ± 27.9 0.011 0.928 0.373
AROM-Sab 60.8 ± 41.2 75.0 ± 43.8 14.2 ± 16.9 0.007 82.1 ± 53.8 21.3 ± 23.4 0.007 70.8 ± 42.3 77.3 ± 39.9 6.5 ± 8.0 0.026 80.0 ± 39.6 9.2 ± 14.4 0.041 1.516 0.231
AROM-Sad 29.2 ± 10.8 32.9 ± 11.8 3.8 ± 5.7 0.059 33.0 ± 11.8 10.4 ± 12.9 0.059 28.5 ± 14.6 32.3 ± 13.0 3.9 ± 6.5 0.059 33.9 ± 13.3 5.4 ± 6.6 0.020 0.198 0.722
AROM-Sint 35.5 ± 26.0 42.9 ± 22.2 10.4 ± 12.9 0.026 46.3 ± 19.2 13.8 ± 13.0 0.010 36.9 ± 25.2 41.9 ± 24.1 5.0 ± 10.4 0.109 42.7 ± 24.2 5.8 ± 11.2 0.109 2.221 0.137
AROM-Sext 30.0 ± 37.7 33.8 ± 36.4 3.8 ± 5.7 0.059 37.1 ± 34.3 7.1 ± 8.1 0.026 24.2 ± 29.9 30.4 ± 26.7 6.2 ± 10.4 0.066 36.2 ± 29.8 11.9 ± 14.1 0.026 0.335 0.717
AROM-total 221.3 ± 136.2 272.9 ± 134.8 51.7 ± 37.1 0.002 288.3 ± 138.9 67.1 ± 44.3 0.003 246.2 ± 136.8 277.7 ± 123.3 31.5 ± 30.4 0.005 294.4 ± 131.1 53.9 ± 56.5 0.003 0.729 0.454
MBI 69.8 ± 16.4 74.9 ± 16.8 5.1 ± 6.8 0.018 78.4 ± 13.2 8.6 ± 13.1 0.036 70.7 ± 17.9 76.5 ± 15.5 5.9 ± 7.4 0.018 78.9 ± 14.4 8.6 ± 10.2 0.005 0.101 0.848
  1. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation. The RM ANCOVA covariates were the time from stroke and FMA baseline data
  2. ANCOVA Analysis of covariance, SB Smart Board intervention, CON Conventional intervention, FMA Fugl–Meyer assessment (FMA-total, FMA-proximal, FMA-distal, FMA-coordination), WMFT Wolf motor function test (WMFT-total, WMFT-functional ability scale, WMFT-time), WMFT-time presented as a log value, AROM Active range of motion (Sf Shoulder flexion, Sab Shoulder abduction, Sad Shoulder adduction, Sint Shoulder internal rotation, Sext Shoulder external rotation), MBI Modified Barthel index