Skip to main content

Table 2 Temporal Measures

From: Effects of extended stance time on a powered knee prosthesis and gait symmetry on the lateral control of balance during walking in individuals with unilateral amputation

  NoneL1L2L3Percent ChangeFeedback Main EffectEffect Size
Stride time (seconds)prosthetic side1.33 (0.09)bc1.31 (0.12)c1.37 (0.12)b1.43 (0.13)a7%F = 14.08p < 0.0010.73
 intact side1.33 (0.09)bc1.31 (0.12)c1.37 (0.12)b1.42 (0.13)a7%F = 13.77p < 0.0010.73
Stance time (seconds)prosthetic side0.83 (0.07)b0.82 (0.08)b0.85 (0.08)b0.89 (0.09)a7%F = 13.60p < 0.0010.73
 intact side0.94 (0.08)b0.93 (0.09)b0.96 (0.10)ab0.98 (0.10)a5%F = 8.48p = 0.0010.62
Stance time asymmetry (%) 12.7 (6.3)a12.9 (6.7)a12.4 (7.8)ab10.2 (7.3)b−20%F = 5.96p = 0.0060.54
Single support time/contralateral swing time (percent of stride)prosthetic side29.4 (2.8)b29.2 (2.5)b30.2 (2.5)ab31.0 (2.5)a5%F = 7.32p = 0.0030.59
 intact side37.8 (2.1)a37.8 (2.5)ab38.3 (2.9)ab37.8 (2.7)b0%F = 2.60p = 0.0850.35
Double support time (percent of stride)prosthetic side trailing15.5 (1.3)a15.6 (1.5)a15.1 (1.4)ab14.7 (1.1)b−5%F = 5.64p = 0.0080.53
 intact side trailing17.3 (2.6)17.4 (2.7)16.5 (3.0)16.5 (2.6)−5%F = 2.10p = 0.141 
  1. The first four columns summarize the group mean and standard deviation of the testing conditions. The fifth column is the percent change between the first and last condition, i.e. None and L3. The sixth column is the one-way ANOVA results for the main effect of feedback, with bold font denoting statistical significance p < 0.1. Post-hoc multiple comparisons results are denoted by superscript lettering, with conditions not sharing the same lettering being statistically different. The last column is the effect size (partial eta squared) of the visual feedback for statistically significant changes