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Table 5 Comparison of the proposed instrument with other state-of-the-art wearable and wireless biopotential acquisition systems existing in the literature

From: A high-performance 8 nV/√Hz 8-channel wearable and wireless system for real-time monitoring of bioelectrical signals

Parameters[43][44][45]This work
Number of channels32845 (+ 3)
Type of biosignalsEMGECG, EMGEEG, LFPExG, ECoG, LFP, ERNA, body position and movement, PV ectopic activity (+ amperometric/potentiometric)
Voltage gain46 dB≈ 28 dB (max)≈ 54 dB60 dB
Input voltage range±5 mV±100 mV±1.15 mV±2.3 mV
Maximum available bandwidth10–500 Hz0–250 Hz1.5–100 Hz0.5–500 Hz
Input impedance1.3 GΩ (10 Hz)≈ 620 MΩ (10 Hz)47 kΩ (10 Hz)≈ 8 GΩ (10 Hz)
Input referred noise<  3 μV rms0.2 μV rms (0–250 Hz)≈ 0.606 μV rms (1.5–100 Hz)0.169 μV rms (0.5–500 Hz)
CMRR82 dB110 dB134 dB
Maximum resolution of the ADC16 bits24 bits16 bits24 bits
Maximum sampling frequency2048 SPS500 SPS (16 kSPS for wired)500 SPS1 kSPS (32 kSPS for wired)
Hours of continuous operation5 (600 mAh 1-Cell LiPo battery)13.6 (1700 mAh battery)6 to 8 (CR1/3 N lithium ion button-cell battery)8 (1 Ah lithium battery)
Wireless capabilityYes (Wi-Fi)Yes (Bluetooth)Yes (2.4 GHz MSK)Yes (Zigbee)
Latency12 ms1 ms
Max. transmission range22 m10 m3–5 m5 m
Area (length × width)10.2 cm221.7 cm2 (PCB area)4.76 cm244 cm2 (PCB area)