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Table 5 Comparison of the proposed instrument with other state-of-the-art wearable and wireless biopotential acquisition systems existing in the literature

From: A high-performance 8 nV/√Hz 8-channel wearable and wireless system for real-time monitoring of bioelectrical signals

Parameters [43] [44] [45] This work
Number of channels 32 8 4 5 (+ 3)
Type of biosignals EMG ECG, EMG EEG, LFP ExG, ECoG, LFP, ERNA, body position and movement, PV ectopic activity (+ amperometric/potentiometric)
Voltage gain 46 dB ≈ 28 dB (max) ≈ 54 dB 60 dB
Input voltage range ±5 mV ±100 mV ±1.15 mV ±2.3 mV
Maximum available bandwidth 10–500 Hz 0–250 Hz 1.5–100 Hz 0.5–500 Hz
Input impedance 1.3 GΩ (10 Hz) ≈ 620 MΩ (10 Hz) 47 kΩ (10 Hz) ≈ 8 GΩ (10 Hz)
Input referred noise <  3 μV rms 0.2 μV rms (0–250 Hz) ≈ 0.606 μV rms (1.5–100 Hz) 0.169 μV rms (0.5–500 Hz)
CMRR 82 dB 110 dB 134 dB
Maximum resolution of the ADC 16 bits 24 bits 16 bits 24 bits
Maximum sampling frequency 2048 SPS 500 SPS (16 kSPS for wired) 500 SPS 1 kSPS (32 kSPS for wired)
Hours of continuous operation 5 (600 mAh 1-Cell LiPo battery) 13.6 (1700 mAh battery) 6 to 8 (CR1/3 N lithium ion button-cell battery) 8 (1 Ah lithium battery)
Wireless capability Yes (Wi-Fi) Yes (Bluetooth) Yes (2.4 GHz MSK) Yes (Zigbee)
Latency 12 ms 1 ms
Max. transmission range 22 m 10 m 3–5 m 5 m
Area (length × width) 10.2 cm2 21.7 cm2 (PCB area) 4.76 cm2 44 cm2 (PCB area)