Skip to main content

Table 1 LMM mean difference estimates for various gait parameters

From: Robotic body weight support enables safe stair negotiation in compliance with basic locomotor principles

 Intercept (Base)ΔBWS20ΔBWS30ΔBWS40ΔBWS50ΔPostΔmaleΔBMI
Ascent
 Velocity (m/s)0.38 (0.02)−0.07 (0.01)− 0.07 (0.01)− 0.09 (0.01)−0.11 (0.01)− 0.01 (0.01)0.03 (0.02)0.00 (0.00)
 Step Width (m)0.064 (0.008)−0.022 (0.005)−0.023 (0.005)− 0.007 (0.005)−0.004 (0.005)− 0.008 (0.005)−0.01 (0.01)0.00 (0.00)
 Sing. Supp. (%)36.8 (0.9)1.5 (0.5)1.3 (0.5)1.6 (0.5)1.7 (0.5)0.6 (0.5)0.01 (0.01)0.00 (0.00)
 Hip ROM (°)58.39 (1.40)−2.87 (1.05)−3.68 (1.05)− 5.71 (1.05)−8.09 (1.05)−0.27 (1.05)− 2.38 (1.86)− 0.42 (0.36)
 Knee ROM (°)83.70 (3.33)− 3.05 (1.18)−4.60 (1.18)−8.84 (1.18)− 11.43 (1.18)−0.37 (1.18)2.73 (4.95)−0.93 (0.96)
 Ankle ROM (°)47.47 (1.89)7.69 (1.03)7.78 (1.03)9.71 (1.03)9.36 (1.03)1.36 (1.03)−8.38 (2.69)−0.73 (0.52)
 Fz2 (% BW)104.78 (1.74)−10.43 (1.11)−20.54 (1.11)−31.70 (1.11)−43.13 (1.11)−0.60 (1.11)2.70 (2.41)−0.63 (0.47)
 Fz3 (% BW)80.75 (1.46)−4.29 (1.40)−16.55 (1.40)−27.21 (1.40)−37.58 (1.41)3.19 (1.41)−5.82 (1.75)−0.16 (0.34)
 Fz4 (% BW)113.50 (1.55)−28.52 (1.49)−37.90 (1.49)−48.33 (1.49)−59.54 (1.49)−1.47 (1.49)−0.53 (1.85)− 0.63 (0.36)
Descent
 Velocity (m/s)0.42 (0.02)−0.08 (0.01)−0.09 (0.01)− 0.11 (0.01)−0.12 (0.01)− 0.01 (0.01)0.04 (0.03) 0.00 (0.01)
 Hip ROM (°)26.89 (0.93)−1.72 (0.54)−1.76 (0.54)−3.02 (0.54)−4.49 (0.54)−0.17 (0.54)− 1.43 (1.32)− 0.55 (0.26)
 Knee ROM (°)87.86 (1.92)−3.00 (0.82)− 3.73 (0.82)−4.12 (0.82)−5.91 (0.82)− 1.24 (0.82)−2.12 (2.81)− 0.70 (0.55)
 Ankle ROM (°)65.94 (1.99)−1.45 (0.81)−4.03 (0.81)−5.40 (0.81)−8.28 (0.81)1.14 (0.81)−9.95 (2.93)−0.25 (0.57)
 Fz2 (% BW)126.48 (2.67)−37.58 (2.09)−46.33 (2.09)−59.40 (2.09)−72.49 (2.09)−1.04 (2.09)4.40 (3.52)0.18 (0.68)
 Fz3 (% BW)82.68 (1.86)−14.24 (1.32)−25.85 (1.32)−35.91 (1.32)−45.91 (1.32)−0.31 (1.32)−4.10 (2.52)0.29 (0.49)
 Fz4 (% BW)97.28 (1.64)−25.85 (1.19)−36.46 (1.19)−46.69 (1.19)−57.19 (1.19)−0.67 (1.19)−1.59 (2.21)0.22 (0.43)
  1. Estimated intercepts and mean differences to baseline for unloading, mean difference to female population for gender, and mean difference to mean BMI levels of the spatio-temporal, kinematic and kinetic LMMs as reported by the lmerTest package. Values in brackets specify averaged model standard errors of the coefficients. Bold coefficients correspond to significant mean differences to baseline from post-hoc testing