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Table 2 Upper limb kinematic variables matched with self-selected walking speed intention

From: The nature and extent of upper limb associated reactions during walking in people with acquired brain injury

Variable (°)ABI (n = 42)HC (n = 36)ANCOVA OUTCOMES
Mean ± SDRangeMean ± SDRangeFp valuePartial Eta Squared
Shoulder Flexion Mean0.21 ± 10.58−34.7 to 26.94.3 ± 3.3− 3.5 to 11.76.98< 0.010.09
Shoulder Flexion SD4.4 ± 2.40.7 to 10.28.1 ± 2.93.1 to 18.624.46< 0.010.25
Shoulder Flexion Peak7.4 ± 11.1− 29.2 to 29.916.7 ± 6.33.0 to 33.318.39< 0.010.20
Shoulder Extension Peaka−7.3 ± 11.2−39.3 to 23.2−7.7 ± 4.2−21.4 to − 1.20.480.490.01
Shoulder Flexion ROM14.7 ± 7.13.3 to 30.424.5 ± 8.510.8 to 54.618.18< 0.010.20
Shoulder Abduction Mean16.9 ± 7.73.7 to 36.26.4 ± 3.10.6 to 12.838.34< 0.010.35
Shoulder Abduction SD2.6 ± 1.30.4 to 6.21.8 ± 0.60.8 to 3.212.08< 0.010.14
Shoulder Abduction Peak21.3 ± 7.97.0 to 37.99.4 ± 3.32.5 to 16.548.49< 0.010.40
Shoulder Adduction Peaka12.9 ± 8.1−1.27 to 34.73.7 ± 3.2−2.7 to 10.423.26< 0.010.24
Shoulder Abduction ROM8.5 ± 4.01.6 to 20.65.8 ± 1.83.1 to 9.615.91< 0.010.18
Shoulder Rotation Mean16.7 ± 20.6−24.4 to 62.310.3 ± 12.1−10.9 to 34.40.400.530.01
Shoulder Rotation SD4.0 ± 1.91.4 to 9.64.5 ± 2.22.0 to- 12.00.010.920.00
Shoulder Internal Rotation Peak24.4 ± 20.5−19.4 to 68.316.8 ± 12.0−2.6 to 40.31.180.280.02
Shoulder External Rotation Peaka9.5 ± 21.1−37.1 to 57.51.9 ± 13.7−23.3 to 27.90.390.540.01
Shoulder Rotation ROM14.9 ± 6.75.7 to 30.214.9 ± 6.46.7 to 36.51.190.280.02
Elbow Flexion Mean50.7 ± 24.114.3 to 109.911.9 ± 6.0−0.6 to 26.163.52< 0.010.47
Elbow Flexion SD3.4 ± 1.50.9 to 8.89.6 ± 3.43.1 to 17.080.04< 0.010.53
Elbow Flexion Peak56.6 ± 23.320.8 to 115.927.4 ± 7.912.2 to 43.736.14< 0.010.33
Elbow Extension Peaka44.5 ± 24.88.9 to 103.4−0.6 ± 7.9−14.3 to 17.779.80< 0.010.53
Elbow Flexion ROM12.0 ± 5.04.1 to 26.828.1 ± 9.110.3 to 46.166.23< 0.010.48
Forearm Rotation Meanb16.6 ± 27.8−62.8 to 67.917.4 ± 13.7−6.1 to 52.90.180.670.00
Forearm Rotation SDb−84.7 ± 3.4−89.0 to −71.4−86.3 ± 1.3− 88.2 to −83.312.89< 0.010.15
Forearm Pronation Peakb27.0 ± 29.0−51.5 to 82.724.2 ± 14.9−2.2 to 63.51.580.210.02
Forearm Supination Peaka,b6.3 ± 27.5−73.6 to 54.611.3 ± 13.1−10.8 to 43.30.320.570.00
Forearm Rotation ROM b20.7 ± 13.04.3 to 69.712.9 ± 3.96.8 to 21.219.34< 0.010.21
Wrist Flexion Mean−5.8 ± 12.5−41.5 to 33.4−5.6 ± 6.4−20.6 to 9.10.040.840.00
Wrist Flexion SD2.4 ± 1.60.5 to 7.02.5 ± 1.01.0 to 4.71.430.240.02
Wrist Flexion Peak−0.9 ± 13.3−37.0 to 34.8−1.0 ± 7.0− 13.7 to 19.30.400.530.01
Wrist Extension Peaka−10.2 ± 12.6−44.5 to 32.36−9.6 ± 6.6−26.7 to 4.00.130.720.00
Wrist Flexion ROM9.3 ± 6.31.9 to 25.68.5 ± 3.23.8 to 16.15.39< 0.050.07
  1. All units for mean ± SD and range are in degrees and for the affected upper limb. The bold variables are significantly different between groups
  2. ABI acquired brain injury, HC healthy control, SD standard deviation, ROM range of motion
  3. avalues for these axis vectors are higher the lower the value is. For these variables 0 represents the neutral position, and a more negative value denotes a greater angle. For example, the mean Forearm Supination Peak for the ABI group was 6.30, which indicates that the mean angle was still in a pronated position as it was > 00. By contrast, mean Shoulder Extension Peak for the ABI group was −7.30, indicating that the shoulder was in an extended position as it was < 00. Joint angles are expressed in this manner for clinical clarity
  4. bThe forearm is typically reported with the healthy anatomical position as the zero reference point: i.e. fully supinated. By contrast, it is reported here as offset by 900 to make the zero reference point a neutral position, with positive values more pronated and negative values more supinated