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Table 3 Incidence of upper limb variable abnormalities (for the affected upper limb with AR)

From: The nature and extent of upper limb associated reactions during walking in people with acquired brain injury

VariableDecreased n (%)Normal n (%)Increased n (%)
Shoulder Flexion Mean18 (43)18 (43)6 (14)
Shoulder Flexion SD9 (21)33 (79)0 (0)
Shoulder Flexion Peak17 (41)24 (57)1 (2)
Shoulder Extension Peak9 (21)20 (48)13 (31)
Shoulder Flexion ROM6 (14)36 (86)0 (0)
Shoulder Abduction Mean0 (0)11 (26)31 (74)
Shoulder Abduction SD1 (2)28 (67)13 (31)
Shoulder Abduction Peak0 (0)10 (24)32 (76)
Shoulder Adduction Peak26 (62)16 (38)0 (0)
Shoulder Abduction ROM1 (2)26 (62)15 (36)
Shoulder Rotation Mean4 (10)30 (71)8 (19)
Shoulder Rotation SD0 (0)41 (98)1 (2)
Shoulder Internal Rotation Peak4 (10)29 (69)9 (21)
Shoulder External Rotation Peak8 (19)30 (71)4 (10)
Shoulder Rotation ROM0 (0)39 (93)3 (7)
Elbow Flexion Mean0 (0)4 (10)38 (91)
Elbow Flexion SD20 (48)22 (52)0 (0)
Elbow Flexion Peak0 (0)14 (33)28 (67)
Elbow Extension Peak38 (91)4 (10)0 (0)
Elbow Flexion ROM17 (41)25 (60)0 (0)
Forearm Rotation Mean5 (12)29 (69)8 (19)
Forearm Rotation SD1 (2)27 (64)14 (33)
Forearm Pronation Peak5 (12)27 (64)10 (24)
Forearm Supination Peak7 (17)25 (60)10 (24)
Forearm Rotation ROM1 (2)22 (52)19 (45)
Wrist Flexion Mean5 (12)32 (76)5 (12)
Wrist Flexion SD2 (5)35 (83)5 (12)
Wrist Flexion Peak5 (12)33 (79)4 (10)
Wrist Extension Peak3 (7)34 (81)5 (12)
Wrist Flexion ROM2 (5)32 (76)8 (19)
  1. SD standard deviation, Max maximum, Min minimum, ROM range of motion
  2. The bold variables highlight where the majority of the ABI cohort were classified