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Table 1 Detailed device specifications for exoskeletons that improved healthy, natural walking, and/or running economy versus using no device

From: The exoskeleton expansion: improving walking and running economy

NumberLeadAuthorYearMetabolic Reduction (%)Sample SizeTarget Joint(s)Auto /TetheredActive /PassiveWalk /RunSpeed (m/s)ModeDevice Mass (kg)Note
1G Sawicki2009149AnkleTetheredActiveWalk1.25Level Ground2.36Long Step Lengths
2P Malcolm201368AnkleTetheredActiveWalk1.38Level Ground1.52 
3L Mooney2014a87AnkleAutonomousActiveWalk1.5Level Ground4Load Carry (23 kg)
4L Mooney2014b107AnkleAutonomousActiveWalk1.4Level Ground3.6 
5S Collins20157.29AnkleAutonomousPassiveWalk1.25Level Ground0.91 
6L Mooney2016116AnkleAutonomousActiveWalk1.4Level Ground3.6 
7K Seo201613.25HipAutonomousActiveWalk1.17Level Ground2.8 
8G Lee20175.48HipTetheredActiveRun2.5Level Ground0.81 
9S Galle20171210AnkleTetheredActiveWalk1.25Level Ground1.78 
10Y Lee201713.25HipAutonomousActiveWalk1.14Level Ground2.6 
11K Seo201715.55HipAutonomousActiveWalk1.17Inclined Slope2.45% grade
12H Lee2017730HipAutonomousActiveWalk1.1Level Ground2.8Elderly
13R Nasiri2018810HipAutonomousPassiveRun2.5Level Ground1.8 
14S Lee201814.97Hip, AnkleAutonomousActiveWalk1.5Level Ground9.3Load Carry (6.8 kg)
15Y Ding201817.48HipTetheredActiveWalk1.25Level Ground1.37 
16J Kim20183.98HipAutonomousActiveRun2.5Level Ground4.7Hybrid System
17D Kim201810.1615HipAutonomousActiveWalkN/AStair Ascent2.8Elderly/128 Steps
18F Panizzolo20193.39HipAutonomousPassiveWalk1.1Level Ground0.65Elderly
19M MacLean20194.24KneeAutonomousActiveWalk0.5Inclined Slope8.4Load Carry (18.1 kg) / 15 deg incline
20C Simpson20196.412HipAutonomousPassiveRun2.67Level GroundN/AAnkle Attachment
21J Kim20199.39HipAutonomousActiveWalk1.5Level Ground5Hybrid System
22J Kim201949HipAutonomousActiveRun2.5Level Ground5Hybrid System
23B Lim201919.86HipAutonomousActiveWalk1.11Level Ground2.1 
24C Khazoom20195.68AnkleTetheredActiveWalk1.4Level Ground6.2