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Table 2 Details of studies assessing validity for spatiotemporal (ST), kinematic (KIN), and other biomechanical outcomes (OTHER)

From: Validity and reliability of wearable inertial sensors in healthy adult walking: a systematic review and meta-analysis

AuthorYearRefnAgeSTKINOTHERSensorHzGold Standard System
Abhayasinghe2019[20]19* X MPU-9150 (InvenSense)100Motion Capture Camera System (Vicon Motion Systems, Oxford, UK)
Al-Amri2018[21]2535 X Xsens MTw (Xsens Technologies BV, Netherlands)60Motion Capture Camera System (Vicon Motion Systems, Oxford, UK)
Allseits2017[23]1132X  3D gyroscope (no manufacturer listed)50Instrumented Walkway (Matscan, Tekscan, Inc., Boston, MA)
Allseits2018[22]1132X  3D gyroscope (no manufacturer listed)*Instrumented Walkway (Matscan, Tekscan, Inc., Boston, MA)
Aminian2004[24]963XX Physilog (BioAGM, CH)200Motion Capture Camera System and Force Plates (ELITE System, BTS, Milan, Italy)
Atallah2014[25]1440X  3D accelerometer (no manufacturer listed)130Instrumented Treadmill (h/p/cosmos, Munich, Germany)
Backhouse2013[26]1242X  IDEEA (MiniSun LLC., Fresno, CA)*Instrumented Walkway (GAITRite, CIR Systems Inc., Franklin, NJ)
Ben Mansour2015[28]1029X  MMA8453Q (Freescale Semiconductor); L3G4200D (STMicroelectronics)200Instrumented Treadmill (ADAL 3D, Medical Development, Tecmachine Hef, France)
Benoussaad2016[29]1027X  HikoB Fox (HikoB Villeurbanne, France)200Motion Capture Camera System (Vicon Motion Systems, Oxford, UK)
Bertoli2018[30]8074X  Opal (Mobility Lab, APDM Inc., Portland, OR)128Instrumented Walkway (Zeno Walkway, Prokinetics LLC., Havertown, PA)
Bolink2016[31]1726 X Microstrain Inertia-Link100Motion Capture Camera System (Vicon Motion Systems, Oxford, UK)
Bruijn2010[32]9*  XPI-node (Philips, The Netherlands)50Motion Capture Camera System (Optotrak 3020, NDI, Waterloo, ON)
Buganè2012[33]2224/27X  Free4Act (F4A)50Motion Capture Camera System (Vicon Motion Systems, Oxford, UK)
Byun2016[34]8269X  FITMETER (FitLifeInc, Suwon, Korea)32Instrumented Walkway (GAITRite, CIR Systems Inc., Franklin, NJ)
Chalmers2014[35]1122 X ADXL345 (Analog Devices); LPR450 (STMicroelectronics)60Motion Capture Camera System (No Brand Reported)
Chapman2019[36]250 X APDM128Motion Capture Camera System (OptiTrack, Natural Point, Inc., Corvallis, OR)
Cole2014[38]2471/23  XInertial Cube3 (InterSense Inc., Bedford, MA, USA)100Motion Capture Camera System (Vicon Motion Systems, Oxford, UK)
Cooper2009[39]730 X IMU (no manufacture/model reported)100Motion Capture Camera System (Qualisys, Sweden)
Dalton2013[40]1057X XAD_BRC250Instrumented Walkway (GAITRite, CIR Systems Inc., Franklin, NJ)
Del Din2016[41]3067X  Axivity AX3, UK50Instrumented Walkway (GAITRite, CIR Systems Inc., Franklin, NJ)
Esser2009[42]523  XXsens MTx (Xsens Technologies BV, Netherlands)100Motion Capture Camera System (Qualisys, Göteborg, Sweden)
Furrer2015[43]2227  XSmartphone: Desire HD, HTC Corp, Taiwan50Motion Capture Camera System (Vicon Motion Systems, Oxford, UK); Force Plates (OR 6, AMTI, Watertown, MA)
Godfrey2015[44]40Y/37O29/64X  Axivity AX3, UK100Instrumented Walkway (GAITRite, CIR Systems Inc., Franklin, NJ)
Gonzalez2016[45]5Y/5O24/68X  LPMS-B (LP Research, Japan)*Instrumented Walkway (GAITRite, CIR Systems Inc., Franklin, NJ)
Greene2012[47]7*X  Shimmer (Shimmer Sensing, Dublin, IR)102Instrumented Walkway (GAITRite, CIR Systems Inc., Franklin, NJ)
Greene2010[48]930X  Shimmer (Shimmer Sensing, Dublin, IR)102Motion Capture Camera System (CODA Motion Analysis Leicestershire, UK)
Hartmann2009[51]2377X  DynaPort (McRoberts BV, Hague, Netherlands)100Instrumented Walkway (GAITRite, CIR Systems Inc., Franklin, NJ)
Huang2016[54]1330 X Invensense MPU6050 (San Jose, CA)100Motion Capture Camera System (Vicon Motion Systems, Oxford, UK)
Hundza2014[55]730X  Microelectromechanical systems (no manufacture listed)40Instrumented Walkway (GAITRite, CIR Systems Inc., Franklin, NJ)
Jarchi2014[56]10*X  E-AR Sensor (Sensixa Ltd., London, UK)130Instrumented Treadmill (Gaitway, Kistler Instrument Corp, Amherst, US)
Karatsidis2019[57]1131 X Xsens MVm (Xsens Technologies BV, Netherlands)240Motion Capture Camera System (Qualisys, Göteborg, Sweden); Force Plates (OR 6, AMTI, Watertown, MA)
Kitagawa2016[59]1023X  TSND121 (ATR-Promotions, Japan)200Motion Capture Camera System (Motion Analysis Corp, Rohnert Park, CA)
Köse2012[61]931X  Sensorize (FreeSense ApS, Denmark)100Motion Capture Camera System (BTS, Milan, Italy)
Lebel2017[62]2050 X IGS-180 (Synertial; Inertial Labs)60Motion Capture Camera System (Vicon Motion Systems, Oxford, UK)
L’Hermette2008[63]1523X XADXL105-EM3 (Analog Devices)100Motion Capture Camera System (Vicon Motion Systems, Oxford, UK)
Liu2009[65]825  XMM-2860 (Sunhayato, Japan)*Motion Capture Camera System (NAC Image Technology, Tokyo, Japan)
Lord2008[66]1173X  Vitaport Activity Monitor (TEMEC Instruments Inc., Netherlands)25Instrumented Walkway (GAITRite, CIR Systems Inc., Franklin, NJ)
Maffiuletti2008[68]1034X  IDEEA (MiniSun LLC, Fresno, CA)32Force Plates (Kistler Instrumente AG, Winterthur, Switzerland)
Manor2018[69]1430X  iPhone 4 s (Apple, CA)100Instrumented Walkway (GAITRite, CIR Systems Inc., Franklin, NJ)
Mariani2012[70]1232X  Physilog (BioAGM, CH)200Motion Capture Camera System (Vicon Motion Systems, Oxford, UK)
Mariani2013[71]10*X  Physilog (BioAGM, CH)200Pressure Insoles (Pedar-X, Novel, DE)
McGrath2012[72]5*X  Shimmer (Shimmer Sensing, Dublin, IR)102Motion Capture Camera System (CODA Motion Analysis, Leicestershire, UK)
Ohtako2001[75]6* X ADXL05 (Analog Devices); ENC03J (Murata)100Motion Capture Camera System (Vicon Motion Systems, Oxford, UK); Force Plates (OR 6, AMTI, Watertown, MA)
Pepa2017[77]11*X  iPhone 4 s (Apple, CA)100Motion Capture Camera System (ELITE System, BTS, Milan, Italy)
Sabatini2015[79]930  XBMA180 (Bosch); ITG-3200 (InvenSense); HMC5843 (Honeywell)100Motion Capture Camera System (Vicon Motion Systems, Oxford, UK)
Saremi2006[80]8*X  IDEEA (MiniSun LLC, Fresno, CA)32Pressure Insoles (B&L Engineering, Los Angeles, CA)
Schmitz-Hübsch2016[81]950X  Opal (Mobility Lab, APDM Inc., Portland, OR)128Instrumented Walkway (GAITRite, CIR Systems Inc., Franklin, NJ)
Sejdic2015[82]1474X  MMA7260Q (Freescale Semiconductor)100Motion Capture Camera System (OptiTrack, Natural Point, Inc., Corvallis, OR)
Selles2005[83]1029X  ICSensors 3021 (ICSensors Inc., Fremont, CA)500Force Plates (Kistler Instrumente AG, Winterthur, Switzerland)
Sijobert2015[85]10*X  HikoB Fox (HikoB Villeurbanne, France)200Instrumented Walkway (GAITRite, CIR Systems Inc., Franklin, NJ)
Silsupadol2017[86]3423/74X  Vivo X5 (Android 4.4.4)100Instrumented Walkway (GAITRite, CIR Systems Inc., Franklin, NJ)
Steins2014[87]1026  XiPod Touch 4th generation (Apple, CA)100Motion Capture Camera System (Qualisys, Sweden)
Storm2016[88]1028X  Opal (Mobility Lab, APDM Inc., Portland, OR)128Pressure Insoles (F-Scan 3000E, Tekscan, Inc., Boston, MA)
Teufl2019[89]24*X  Xsens MTw Awinda (Xsens Technologies BV, Netherlands)60Motion Capture Camera System (OptiTrack, Natural Point, Inc., Corvallis, OR)
Teufl2018[90]2824 X Xsens MTw Awinda (Xsens Technologies BV, Netherlands)60Motion Capture Camera System (OptiTrack, Natural Point, Inc., Corvallis, OR)
Trojaniello2014[91]1432X  Opal (Mobility Lab, APDM Inc., Portland, OR)128Motion Capture Camera System (Vicon Motion Systems, Oxford, UK); Force Plates (OR 6, AMTI, Watertown, MA)
Trojaniello2014[92]1070X  Opal (Mobility Lab, APDM Inc., Portland, OR)128Instrumented Walkway (GAITRite, CIR Systems Inc., Franklin, NJ)
Trojaniello2015[93]1070X  Opal (Mobility Lab, APDM Inc., Portland, OR)128Instrumented Walkway (GAITRite, CIR Systems Inc., Franklin, NJ)
Washabaugh2017[96]1124X  Opal (Mobility Lab, APDM Inc., Portland, OR)*Instrumented Treadmill (Bertec, Columbus, OH)
Wundersitz2015[97]3924  XMinimax S4 (Catapult Innovations, Australia)100Motion Capture Camera System (Motion Analysis Corp, Rohnert Park, CA)
Xia2017[98]1425 X MPU9150 (Invensense, USA)100Motion Capture Camera System (Vicon Motion Systems, Oxford, UK)
Zhang2013[99]1024 X Xsens MVm (Xsens Technologies BV, Netherlands)100Motion Capture Camera System (Optotrak 3020, NDI, Waterloo, ON)
Zijlstra2003[101]1523X  Kistler accelerometer100Instrumented Treadmill (No Brand Reported)
  1. *Information not reported