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Table 2 Characteristics of the controlled studies

From: Immediate and long-term effects of BCI-based rehabilitation of the upper extremity after stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study, year Design n (E/C) Age (years)a Time since strokea Brain signal for BCI Experimental group Control group Dosage of BCI Outcome measures
Mihara et al. (2013) [35] RCT 10/10 E: 56.1 ± 7.9
C: 60.1 ± 8.5
E: 146.6 ± 36.2 (d)
C: 123.4 ± 38.3 (d)
NIRS, oxyHB Con-rehab + BCI-visual feedback (MI task) Con-rehab + sham BCI 20 min/d, 3 d/wk., 2 wk., 6 d FMA-UE, ARAT, MAL, fNIRS
Ramos-Murguialday et al. (2013) [15] RCT 16/16 E: 49.3 ± 12.5
C: 50.3 ± 12.2
E: 66 ± 45 (mo)
C: 71 ± 72 (mo)
EEG, beta 1 h PT rehab + BCI-orthosis (MA task) 1 h PT rehab + 1 h sham BCI 40 min/d, 5 d/wk., 4 wk., 20 d FMA-UE, GAS, MAL, MAS, task-fMRI
Varkuti et al. (2013) [49] NRCT 6/3 E: 40.94 ± 14.5
C: 50.67 ± 6.66
E: 11.67 ± 13.51 (mo)
C: 6.8 ± 6.5 (mo)
EEG BCI-Manus robot (MI task) Manus robot 1 h/d, 3 d/wk., 4 wk., 12 d FMA-UE, RS-fMRI
Ang et al. (2014) [50] RCT 6/8 E: 54.1 ± 8.9
C: 51.1 ± 6.3
E: 258.7 ± 64.0 (d)
C: 398.2 ± 150.9 (d)
EEG, 0.5 h mobilization + BCI-robot (MI task) 0.5 h mobilization + robot 1.5 h/d, 3 d/wk., 6 wk., 18 d FMA-UE,
Li et al. (2014) [6] RCT 7/7 E: 66.3 ± 4.9
C: 67.1 ± 6.0
E: 2.2 ± 1.8 (mo)
C: 2.8 ± 2.0 (mo)
EEG, mu, beta Con-rehab + BCI-FES (MI task) Con-rehab + FES 1–1.5 h/d, 3 d/wk., 24 d, FMA-UE, ARAT, EEG
Rayegani et al. (2014) [47] RCT 10/10 E: 51 ± 7.3
C: 54 ± 8.2
E: 8.5 ± 6 (mo)
C: 8 ± 8.8 (mo)
EEG, beta 1 h con-rehab + BCI-visual feedback (MI task) Con-rehab 30 min/d, 5 d/wk., 2 wk., 10 d JHFT
Ang et al. (2015) [7] RCT 11/14 E: 48.5 ± 13.5
C: 53.6 ± 9.5
E: 383.0 ± 290.8 (d)
C: 234.7 ± 183.8 (d)
EEG, FBCSP BCI-Manus robot (MI task) Manus robot 1.5 h/d, 3 d/wk., 4 wk., 12 d FMA-UE
Pichiorri et al. (2015) [17] RCT 14/14 E: 64.1 ± 8.4
C: 59.6 ± 12.7
E: 2.7 ± 1.7 (mo)
C: 2.5 ± 1.2 (mo)
EEG, 0–60 Hz 3 h con-rehab + BCI-visual feedback (MI task) 3 h con-rehab + MI 30 min/d, 3 d/wk., 4 wk. 12 d FMA-UE, MRC, MAS, NIHSS, EEG
Jang et al. (2016) [46] RCT 10/10 E: 61.10 ± 13.77
C: 61.70 ± 12.09
E: 4.40 ± 0.97 (mo)
C: 4.10 ± 0.74 (mo)
EEG, (SMR + mid-beta) / theta 30 min con-rehab + BCI-FES (AO task) 30 min con-rehab + FES 20 min/d, 5 d/wk., 6 wk., 30 d VD, HD, VAS, MAS, MFT
Kim et al. (2016) [51] RCT 15/15 E: 59.09 ± 8.07
C: 59.93 ± 9.79
E: 8.27 ± 1.98 (mo)
C: 7.80 ± 1.78 (mo)
EEG, (SMR + mid-beta) / theta 30 min con-rehab + AO-BCI-FES (AO task) 30 min con-rehab 30 min/d, 5 d/wk., 4 wk., 20 d FMA-UE, MAL, MBI, ROM
Frolov et al. (2017) [52] RCT 55/19 E: 55.0 ± 12.9
C: 58.5 ± 10.9
E: 8.9 ± 6.4 (mo)
C: 8.8 ± 8.4 (mo)
EEG, 5–30 Hz Con-rehab + BCI-arm exoskeleton (MI task) Con-rehab + sham BCI 30 min/d, 3 d/wk., 12 d FMA-UE, ARAT,
Biasiucci et al. (2018) [16] RCT 14/13 E: 56.4 ± 9.9
C: 59.0 ± 12.4
B: 39.8 ± 45.9 (mo)
C: 33.5 ± 30.5 (mo)
EEG, mu, beta BCI-FES (MA task) Sham BCI 1 h/d, 2 d/wk., 5 wk., 10 d FMA-UE, MRC, MAS, ESS, EEG,
Ramos-Murguialday et al. (2019) [53] RCT 16/12 E: 49.3 ± 12.5
C: 50.3 ± 12.2
E: 66 ± 45 (mo)
C: 71 ± 72 (mo)
EEG, beta 1 h PT rehab + 1 h BCI-orthosis (MA task) 1 h PT rehab + 1 h sham BCI 1 h/d, 5 d/wk., 4 wk., 20 d FMA-UE, GAS, MAL, MAS, task-fMRI
Ang et al. (2015) [54] RCT 10/9 E: 52.1 ± 11.7
C: 56.3 ± 9.5
E: 1052 ± 722 (d)
C: 1021 ± 465 (d)
EEG 20 min tDCS + BCI- robot (MI task) 20 min sham tDCS + BCI- robot 1 h/d, 5 d/wk., 2 wk FMA-UE
Kasashima-Shindo et al. (2015) [55] NRCT 11/7 E: 53.5 ± 12.4
C: 48 ± 9.7
E: 46.2 ± 20.2 (mo)
C: 56.4 ± 36.4 (mo)
EEG, mu 10 min tDCS + BCI-orthosis (MI task) BCI-orthosis 45 min/d, 5 d/wk., 2 wk FMA-UE, MAS
  1. aData is reported as means (SD)
  2. RCT Randomized control trial, NRCT Non-randomized control trial, E Experimental group, C Control group, BCI Brain-computer interface, NIRS Near-infrared spectroscopy, oxyHB oxygenated hemoglobin, con conventional, MI Motor imagery, AO Action observation, MA Movement attempt, rehab rehabilitation, min minute(s), h hour(s), d day(s), wk. week(s), mo month(s), yr year(s), FMA Fugl-Meyer assessment, UE Upper extremity, LE lower extremity, ARAT Action research arm test, MAL Motor activity log, MAS Modified Ashworth scale, fNIRS functional near-infrared spectroscopy, EEGElectroencephalography, SMR Sensorimotor rhythm, PT Physical therapy, GAS Goal attainment scale, fMRI functional magnetic resonance imaging, RS Resting state, FES functional electrical stimulation, JHFT Jebsen Hand Function Test, MRC Medical Research Council scale, NIHSS National Institute of Health Stroke Scale, VD Vertical distance, HD Horizontal distance, AO Action observation, VAS Visual analogue, MFT The Manual Function Test, MBI Modified Barthel Index, ROM Range of motion, ESS European Stroke Scale, tDCS transcranial direct current stimulation, RMT Resting motor threshold, SICI Short intra-cortical inhibition, ICF Intracortical facilitation