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Table 2 Raw values for pain intensity and for the differences with baseline

From: Virtual reality distraction induces hypoalgesia in patients with chronic low back pain: a randomized controlled trial

  baseline During exercisesa Post exercises
M SD M SD Difference with baseline M SD Difference with baseline
M 95%CI M 95%CI
Control 4.86 1.37 5.40 1.74 −0.55 − 0.05 to −1.04 5.35 1.74 − 0.50 − 0.04 to − 0.96
VR 4.79 1.61 3.12 2.45 1.67 1.08 to 2.25 3.95 2.41 0.83 0.31 to 1.36
  1. Differences with baseline were calculated as: baseline pain intensity - pain intensity during/post exercises. A positive value thus indicates a decrease in pain intensity during/post exercises relative to baseline. 95%CI = 95% confidence interval, M = mean, SD = standard deviation, VR = virtual reality.
  2. a Primary study outcome: Isolated between-groups comparison (VR vs Control) for the pain difference during, using an unpaired t-test: p < 0.0001, t82 = 5.83, between groups difference = 2.21 (95% CI = 1.47 to 2.96)