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Table 2 Within and between group comparisons of outcome measures

From: Intense and unpredictable perturbations during gait training improve dynamic balance abilities in chronic hemiparetic individuals: a randomized controlled pilot trial

  Perturb Group (mean (IQR), n = 10) NonPerturb Group (walking-only training) (mean (IQR), n = 8) NonPerturb Group (perturbation training) (mean (IQR), n = 7)
Dynamic balance (Mini-BESTest) (/28) Pre 20.0 (2.8) 16.5 (6.3) 18.5 (4.0)
Post 23.0 (2.5) 17.0 (3.3) 20.0 (3.5)
 Within group comparison pre/post training Effect Size .63 .21 .45
P value .005 .932 .089
 Between group comparison vs Perturb group post training P value   .007 .069
 Within NonPerturb group post training P value    .042
Comfortable over ground speed (10 m walk test, in m/s) Pre 0.90 (0.31) 0.96 (0.51) 0.83 (0.47)
Post 1.05 (0.50) 0.93 (0.35) 1.05 (0.44)
 Within group comparison pre/post training Effect Size .46 .26 .47
P value .038 .292 .075
 Between group comparison vs Perturb group post training P value   .594 .807
 Within NonPerturb group post training P value    .018
Fast over ground speed (10 m walk test, in m/s)) Pre 1.36 (0.58) 1.25 (0.47) 1.30 (0.54)
Post 1.48 (0.75) 1.26 (0.58) 1.33 (0.45)
 Within group comparison pre/post training Effect Size .60 .13 .47
P value .007 .612 .080
 Between group comparison vs Perturb group post training P value   .424 .626
 Within NonPerturb group post training P value    .141
Paretic knee extensors, maximal strength (Dynamometry, in Nm) Pre 94.5 (46.6) 113.9 (45.9) 108.0 (26.6)
Post 139.1 (51.4) (n = 7) 123.2 (49.2) 106.3 (40.6)
 Within group comparison pre/post training Effect Size .59 .07 .32
P value .028 .779 .237
 Between group comparison vs Perturb group post training P value   .643 .482
 Within NonPerturb group post training P value    .612
Non-paretic knee extensors, maximal strength (Dynamometry, in Nm) Pre 157.7 (64.8) 148.7 (39.2) 150.7 (19.4)
Post 183.0 (52.0) (n = 7) 138.5 (52.3) 162.5 (37.7)
 Within group comparison pre-post training Effect Size .58 .17 .27
P value .028 .484 .310
 Between group comparison vs Perturb group post training P value   .247 .848
 Within NonPerturb group post training P value    .735
Balance confidence (ABC, /100) Pre 75.9 (31.3) 65.9 (17.5) 66.6 (19.4)
Post 76.6 (35.4) 75.2 (22.5) 76.9 (10.3)
 Within group comparison pre/−post training Effect Size .52 .46 .54
P value .021 .063 .042
 Between group comparison vs Perturb group post training P value   .657 .922
 Within NonPerturb group post training P value    .043
Reintegration to normal living index (RNLI, /22) Pre 2.5 (4.0) 2.0 (1.3) 1.0 (1.5)
Post 2.0 (2.5) (n = 9) 1.5 (2.8) 0.0 (1.5)
 Within group comparison pre/post training Effect Size .46 .00 .46
P value .040 .100 .083
 Between group comparison vs Perturb group post training P value   .588 .403
 Within NonPerturb group post training P value    .066
  1. IQR Interquartile range