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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the randomized study participants (MITT, N = 27)

From: Neurocognitive robot-assisted rehabilitation of hand function: a randomized control trial on motor recovery in subacute stroke

Characteristicsa Robot-assisted (n = 14) Control (n = 13) pb
Age (years) 70.00 (12.79) 67.46 (11.39) 0.5921 (t(25) = 0.543)
Time since stroke (weeks) 3.14 (1.51) 3.08 (1.32) 0.8794 (Z = -0.2)
Sex    0.6946
 Male 10 8  
 Female 4 5  
Side of stroke    1.000
 Left 8 7  
 Right 6 6  
Stroke type    0.0054
 Ischemic 13 5  
 Hemorrhagic 1 7  
 Both 0 1  
FMA-UE 50.14 (12.50) 50.84 (15.01) 0.7891 (Z = −0.3)
FMA-WH 17.86 (5.61) 19.39 (6.20) 0.1478 (Z = -1.4)
NIHSS 1.36 (0.75) 1.69 (1.03) 0.3500 (Z = -0.9)
VASp 0.00 (0.00) 0.85 (1.63) 0.0623 (t(25) = −1.951)
LCF-R 8.86 (1.10) 8.31 (1.44) 0.3390 (Z = 1.0)
Goodglass-Kaplan 4.43 (0.76) 4.31 (1.18) 0.8438 (Z = -0.2)
  1. Abbreviations: FMA-UE Fugl-Meyer Assessment of the Upper Extremity; FMA-WH Fugl-Meyer Assessment of Wrist and Hand functions; NIHSS National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale; VASp Visual Analogue Scale for Pain; LCF-R Revised Levels of Cognitive Function; Goodglass-Kaplan, Assessment of aphasia and related disorders
  2. aContinuous data are expressed as mean (standard deviation), categorical data as number
  3. bp values are associated with the Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables (used for small samples), while Wilcoxon rank sum test and two-sample t-test are used for continuous variables (independent samples). According to the Bonferroni correction, the significance level \( {\boldsymbol{\alpha}}^{\ast}=\frac{\mathbf{0.05}}{\mathbf{11}}=\mathbf{0.00455} \))