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Table 2 Patients’ scores in all the clinical and robotic outcome measures

From: Neurocognitive robot-assisted rehabilitation of hand function: a randomized control trial on motor recovery in subacute stroke

Assessment (Max/Healthy Value) Group Baseline (T0) value, Mean (SD) Change from baseline, Mean (SD) Repeated Measures ANOVA on change from baseline
T1 T2 T3 Group Time
F (1,25) P F (2,52) P
FMA-UE (66) RG 50.14 (12.50) + 7.14 (5.72) + 7.79 (7.65) + 8.64 (7.42) 0.035 0.8537 1.206 0.3076
CG 50.85 (15.00) + 6.85 (5.34) + 7.31 (5.68) + 8.08 (8.32)
FMA-WH (24) RG 17.86 (5.61) + 2.93 (2.62) + 3.64 (3.25) + 3.64 (3.23) 0.371 0.5480 3.701 0.0314
CG 19.39 (6.20) + 2.39 (1.81) + 2.54 (2.22) + 3.39 (3.62)
FMA-SE (42) RG 32.29 (8.08) + 4.21 (4.14) + 4.14 (5.92) + 5.00 (5.68) 0.012 0.9152 0.303 0.7403
CG 31.46 (8.95) + 4.46 (3.91) + 4.77 (4.46) + 4.69 (5.62)
BBT (−) RG 17.79 (9.67) + 11.43 (6.60) + 13.50 (7.33) + 17.57 (10.91) 0.504 0.4842 11.330 8.241e-05*
CG 15.15 (8.44) + 12.85 (8.22) + 17.54 (13.39) + 19.92 (13.96)
EmNSA-T(24) RG 20.93 (5.44) + 1.07 (2.20) + 1.43 (2.59) + 1.86 (3.33) 2.986 0.0964 2651 0.0801
CG 15.15 (9.44) + 2.85 (4.45) + 5.54 (7.33) + 4.92 (7.53)
EmNSA-P(8) RG 7.79 (0.58) + 0.14 (0.36) −0.21 (0.43) 0.00 (0.56) 5.258 0.0305 0.520 0.5976
CG 6.77 (1.92) + 0.54 (0.97) + 0.69 (1.18) + 0.46 (0.78)
MAS(0) RG 1.29 (1.77) + 0.07 (2.37) −0.21 (2.36) − 0.29 (2.56) 1.012 0.3241 0.558 0.5756
CG 2.15 (2.94) −1.54 (2.91) −1.31 (3.12) −0.85 (3.69)
MMSE(30) RG 25.89 (3.60) + 0.57 (1.91) + 0.93 (1.64) + 1.71 (3.07) 0.072 0.7906 1.088 0.3446
CG 23.62 (5.47) + 1.05 (1.87) + 0.59 (2.41) + 0.93 (3.33)
FAB(18) RG 14.60 (2.38) + 0.43 (1.74) + 1.14 (1.70) + 1.61 (1.67) 0.144 0.7079 1.625 0.2067
CG 11.98 (5.29) + 1.26 (1.71) + 1.49 (1.76) + 1.05 (1.60)
Albert Test (32) RG 31.86 (0.36) + 0.07 (0.27) + 0.07 (0.48) + 0.14 (0.36) 0.034 0.8544 0.000 1.000
CG 31.77 (0.83) + 0.15 (0.90) + 0.15 (0.56) + 0.08 (0.28)
  1. Abbreviations: SD Standard deviation; FMA-UE Fugl-Meyer Assessment of the Upper Extremity; FMA-WH Fugl-Meyer Assessment of Wrist and Hand functions; FMA-SE Fugl-Meyer Assessment of Shoulder and Elbow functions; MAS Modified Ashworth Scale; EmNSA-T Erasmus MC Nottingham Sensory Assessment of Tactile sensation; EmNSA-P Erasmus MC Nottingham Sensory Assessment of Tactile of Proprioceptive ability; MMSE Mini Mental State Examination; FAB Frontal Assessment Battery
  2. Symbols: * Statistically significant according to Bonferroni correction (i.e., significance level \( {\boldsymbol{\alpha}}^{\ast}=\frac{\mathbf{0.05}}{\mathbf{20}}=\mathbf{0.0025} \))