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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the participants

From: A comparison of the effects and usability of two exoskeletal robots with and without robotic actuation for upper extremity rehabilitation among patients with stroke: a single-blinded randomised controlled pilot study

  ACT group (n = 10) PSV group (n = 9) p-value
Age 54.9 ± 10.7 53.9 ± 16.7 0.842a
Time after stroke onset (month) 11.8 ± 11.0 9.6 ± 4.5 0.905a
Stroke type (infarction/haemorrhage) 5/5 4/5 1.000*
Hemiplegic side, right 6 5 1.000*
Sex, male 8 8 1.000*
FMA-prox 20.6 ± 5.0 22.2 ± 6.2 0.497a
FMA-UE 28.2 ± 10.9 30.2 ± 9.7 0.549a
  1. Values are presented as the mean ± standard deviation or number
  2. ACT, active-assistive robotic intervention; PSV, passive robotic intervention; FMA-prox, Fugl-Meyer Assessment-proximal (shoulder, elbow, and forearm; 18 items, 0–36); FMA-UE, Fugl-Meyer Assessment-upper extremity (shoulder, elbow, forearm, wrist, and hand; 33 items, 0–66)
  3. *Fisher’s exact test
  4. aMann–Whitney U test