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Table 2 Overview of activities and measures regarding walking and moving as well as the corresponding study populations and study designs

From: Systematic review on the application of wearable inertial sensors to quantify everyday life motor activity in people with mobility impairments

Activity Measure Diagnosis / Impairment group Study design
Walking
 Walking Duration Amputees [37, 38, 51], arthritis [31, 48, 60, 87], cerebral palsy [33, 61, 92], chronic pain [70], Duchenne muscular atrophy [26], fallers [28], frail people [35], multiple sclerosis [39], Parkinson’s disease [40,41,42, 49, 52, 53, 68, 72, 79], post-surgery [55], risk of falling [63], spinal cord injury [43, 50, 90], stroke [27, 44,45,46,47, 57, 58, 83,84,85, 88, 91], miscellaneous [54, 78] Between-day reliability [27, 28, 33], case/control [28, 31, 35, 49], classification accuracy [26, 37,38,39,40,41,42,43,44,45,46,47,48, 50,51,52,53,54,55, 57, 58, 60, 61, 68, 70, 72, 78, 79, 83,84,85, 87, 88, 90,91,92], interventional [26], observational [58, 80], technical validity [63, 68]
# of steps / cadence Arthritis [31, 60], cerebral palsy [33, 92], chronic pain [93], Duchenne muscular atrophy [26], fallers [28], frail people [35], multiple sclerosis [39], Parkinson’s disease [77, 80, 86], risk of falling [63], stroke [27] Between-day reliability [27, 28, 33, 93], case/control [28, 31, 35, 86, 93], clinical validity [93], interventional [26], observational [80], technical validity [26, 27, 39, 60, 63, 77, 92]
Temporal gait parameters Cerebral palsy [33], Parkinson’s disease [86], stroke [27] Between-day reliability [27, 33], case/control [86], technical validity [27]
Walking speed / stride length Fallers [28], cerebral palsy [33, 61], chronic pain [70, 93], Parkinson’s disease [40, 86], stroke [27, 58, 91] Between-day reliability [27, 28, 33, 93], case/control [28, 86, 93], classification accuracy [61], clinical validity [40, 93], observational [58], technical validity [27, 70, 91]
Walking stability Chronic pain [93], fallers [81, 82] Between-day reliability [93], case/control [81, 82, 93], clinical validity [93]
Foot clearance Stroke [58] Observational [58]
Knee angle Cerebral palsy [33], multiple sclerosis [39] Between-day reliability [33], technical validity [39]
 Walking sideways Duration Stroke [59] Classification accuracy [59]
 Walking while carrying an object Duration Arthritis [87], stroke [88] Classification accuracy [87, 88]
 Turning # of turns Parkinson’s disease [49, 68, 72, 79, 94, 95] Case/control [49, 79, 94], classification accuracy [68, 72, 95], clinical validity [94]
Duration Arthritis [87], Parkinson’s disease [68, 72, 79, 94, 95], stroke [88] Case/control [79, 94], classification accuracy [79, 87, 88], clinical validity [94], technical validity [68, 72, 95]
Turning angle Parkinson’s disease [79, 94, 95] Case/control [79, 94], clinical validity [94], technical validity [95]
Turning speed Parkinson’s disease [79, 94] Case/control [79, 94], clinical validity [94]
Others1 Parkinson’s disease [79, 94] Case/control [79, 94], clinical validity [94]
 Walking on sloping surfaces Duration Arthritis [87], stroke [47, 88] Classification accuracy [47, 87, 88]
Stair climbing
 Stair climbing Duration Amputees [51], arthritis [60, 87], post-surgery [55], spinal cord injury [43, 50], stroke [44,45,46,47, 59, 83, 84, 88], miscellaneous [54, 96] Classification accuracy [43,44,45,46,47, 50, 51, 54, 55, 59, 60, 83, 84, 87, 88, 96]
# of steps Arthritis [60] Technical validity [60]
Step-by-step vs. step-over-step Stroke [83] Classification accuracy [83]
Running
 Running Duration Amputees [51] Classification accuracy [51]
  1. 1Smoothness, mediolateral range of trunk acceleration, and number of steps to complete a turn