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Table 1 Characteristics of included participants

From: Effects of virtual reality training on occupational performance and self-efficacy of patients with stroke: a randomized controlled trial

  VR group
(n = 25)
Control group
(n = 27)
P value
Age (years)* 53.28 ± 15.30 54.11 ± 14.81 0.430
Post-stroke duration (days)† 20 (9–45.5) 8 (6–15) 0.125
Mini-mental state evaluation† 28 (24.5–29) 28 (26–29) 0.918
Intervention duration† 8 (6–14.5) 7 (6–10) 0.610
Gender    0.335
 Male 18 (72) 16 (59)  
 Female 7 (28) 11 (41)  
Etiology    0.244
 Ischemic 21 (84) 19 (70)  
 Hemorrhage 4 (16) 8 (30)  
Paretic side    0.099
 Right 12 (48) 7 (26)  
 Left 13 (52) 20 (74)  
Handedness    1.000
 Right 25 (100) 26 (96.3)  
 Left 0 (0) 1 (3.7)  
Muscle strength (shoulder flexion)    0.635
 2 3 (12) 6 (22.2)  
 3 12 (48) 11 (40.7)  
 4 6 (24) 5 (18.5)  
 5 4 (16) 5 (18.5)  
Muscle tone (elbow flexion)    0.812
 0 21 (84) 22 (81.5)  
 1 4 (16) 5 (18.5)  
Educational level    0.372
 Primary school 6 (24.0) 9 (33.3)  
 Middle school 5 (20.0) 7 (25.9)  
 High school 4 (16.0) 2 (7.4)  
 Associate’s degree 5 (20.0) 5 (18.5)  
 Bachelor’s degree or above 5 (20.0) 4 (14.8)  
  1. Values are numbers (percentages) unless otherwise stated
  2. *Means ± standard deviation
  3. Median (interquartile range)