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Table 3 Outcome measure scores (median and IQR) at baseline (T1) and 3-week follow-up (T2)

From: Effects of virtual reality training on occupational performance and self-efficacy of patients with stroke: a randomized controlled trial

Outcome VR group (n = 25) Control group (n = 27) Comparison
Between group (Pb)
T1 T2 Pa T1 T2 Pa T1 T2
MBI 84 (66.5–95) 95 (88.5–100)  < 0.000*,
Z = – 3.922
65 (52–86) 85 (59–100)  < 0.000*,
Z = – 4.202
0.081,
Z = − 1.742
0.030*,
Z = − 2.171
FMU 53 (40–59.5) 62 49–64.5)  < 0.000*,
Z = – 4.296
45 (23–59) 58 (31–64)  < 0.000,
Z = – 4.546
0.244
Z = − 1.164
0.295
Z = − 1.047
FTHUE 5 (3–7) 7 (4–7) 0.001*,
Z = – 3.375
4 (3–6) 6 (4–7)  < 0.000*,
Z = – 4.167
0.237
Z = − 1.182
0.191
Z = − 1.307
COPM
Performance 5 (3–6) 7.3 (5–8.5) 0.002*,
Z = – 3.173
4 (2.25–5.75) 7 (5–8.4)  < 0.000*,
Z = – 3.836
0.414
Z = − 0.816
0.607
Z = − 0.514
Satisfaction 5 (3–6.5) 7.3 (5–8.7) 0.001*,
Z = – 3.232
4.5 (2.67–7.5) 7 (5.5–9.2) 0.001*,
Z = – 3.271
0.985
Z = − 0.018
0.920
Z = − 0.101
SSEQ
Total 117 (96.5–125.5) 125 (109.5 –130) 0.006*,
Z = – 2.744
108 (91–122) 117 (102–125) 0.031*,
Z = – 2.155
0.305
Z = − 1.026
0.043*
Z = − 2.027
Daily activities 72 (55.5–77.5) 78 (66.5–80) 0.006*,
Z = – 2.767
68 (51–74) 72 (60–76) 0.096,
Z = – 1.665
0.192
Z = − 1.304
0.017*
Z = − 2.392
Self-management 45 (38.5–47) 49 (40.5–50) 0.073,
Z = – 1.792
43 (38–48) 46 (40–50) 0.009*,
Z = – 2.598
0.659
Z = − 0.441
0.571
Z = − 0.566
  1. All values are Median (IQR, interquartile range). n number of patients;
  2. VR virtual reality, MBI modified Barthel Index, FMU Fugl-Meyer assessment-upper extremity, FTHUE functional test for the hemiplegic upper extremity, COPM canadian occupational performance measure, SSEQ stroke self-efficacy questionnaire
  3. aThe Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare within-group differences
  4. bThe Mann Whitney U-test was used to compare between-group differences
  5. *P ≤ .05