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Table 2 Temporal distance factors while walking overground vs. on the treadmill with and without VR

From: Characterization of speed adaptation while walking on an omnidirectional treadmill

Outcome measure Overground Treadmill Treadmill + VR
Speed (m/s) 1.24 ± 0.14 1.37 ± 0.22 1.30 ± 0.23
Cadence (steps/min) 63.16 ± 3.86 98.49 ± 12.02*** 95.04 ± 13.74***
Step length (m) 0.62 ± 0.06 0.43 ± 0.07*** 0.42 ± 0.06***
Stance time (%) 51.56 ± 6.38 65.72 ± 2.42*** 66.00 ± 2.47***
Swing time (%) 49.78 ± 8.02 34.67 ± 2.54*** 34.48 ± 2.75***
  1. *** Level of significance p < 0.001