Skip to main content

Table 3 Output values from tests on joint angle variability

From: Shoulder kinematics plus contextual target information enable control of multiple distal joints of a simulated prosthetic arm and hand

DoF ANOVA/Kruskal–Wallis test Paired tests—\(\bf \alpha _{corr} = 0.0167\)  
Virtual arm actual behavior C+ vs C− C+ vs N C− vs N
ShFlex F = 0.4457   N/A N/A N/A
p = 0.6450     
ShAbd F = 5.136 T − 2.376 4.962 4.328
p = 0.01287 p 0.04153 7.789e4 0.001912
HumMed H = 9.185 W 0 8 0
p = 0.01013 p 0.005062 0.04685 0.005062
ElFlex F = 23.26 T 7.442 3.390 − 5.236
p = 1.342e−6 p 3.924e5 0.007999 5.375e4
ForSup H = 16.47 W 6 0 1
p = 2.656e−4 p 0.02842 0.005062 0.00691
UlnDev F = 5.867 T 6.212 − 1.331 − 8.753
p = 0.007657 p 1.567e4 0.2158 1.071e5
WrExt F = 4.772 T 2.446 − 4.166 − 6.056
p = 0.007657 p 0.03697 0.002428 1.890e4
Mimicked real arm motion MC+ vs C− MC+ vs N MC− vs N
ElFlex H = 16.97 W 20 0 0
p = 2.062e4 p 0.4446 0.005062 0.005062
ForSup H = 6.227 W 9 17 17
p = 0.04444 p 0.05934 0.2845 0.2845
UlnDev F = 5.593 T − 2.525 − 4.980 − 1.492
p = 0.009284 p 0.03252 7.595e-4 0.1699
WrExt F = 3.516 T − 4.276 − 2.911 1.383
p = 0.04394 p 0.002063 0.01727 0.2001
  1. Significant differences are indicated by p values in bold
  2. ShFlex shoulder flexion, ShAbd shoulder abduction, HumMed humeral lateral rotation, ElFlex elbow flexion, ForSup forearm supination, UlnDev ulnar deviation, WrExt wrist extension