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Table 5 Between-group analysis in depression subgroup of baseline HAM-D and ASCS (T0) as well as improvement in HAM-D and ASCS after treatment (T1 – T0) and at follow-up (T2 – T0)

From: Adaptive conjunctive cognitive training (ACCT) in virtual reality for chronic stroke patients: a randomized controlled pilot trial

MeasuresEGD (n = 11)CGD (n = 10)p
 Mean (SD) – Median [2.5th – 97.5th percentile]Ws
HAM-D
 T06.64 (5.46) – 5.00 [0.00 – 15.00]5.20 (4.78) – 4.00 [0.00 – 13.00].72
 T1 – T0-1.18 (2.40) – -1.00 [-5.00 – 3.00]2.60 (2.84) – 2.50 [-1.00 – 8.00].01
 T2 – T0-2.45 (4.32) – 0.00 [-13.00 – 2.00]1.10 (2.18) – 1.00 [-2.00 – 5.00].04
Attention
 T0-0.27 (0.95) – -0.22 [-2.11 – 1.22]0.01 (0.72) – 0.22 [-1.78 – 0.78].26
 T1 – T00.17 (0.30) – 0.11 [-0.44 – 0.78]0.02 (0.54) – -0.06 [-0.78 – 1.00].23
 T2 – T00.47 (0.46) – 0.44 [-0.11 – 1.33]0.08 (0.35) – 0.06 [-0.44 – 0.56].07
Memory
 T0-0.65 (0.57) – -0.44 [-1.72 – 0.05]-0.61 (0.62) – -0.54 [-1.78 – 0.78].92
 T1 – T00.30 (0.53) – 0.37 [-0.54 – 1.22]0.15 (0.30) – 0.06 [-0.30 – 0.76].46
 T2 – T00.47 (0.69) – 0.58 [-0.73 – 1.71]0.25 (0.41) – 0.34 [-0.47 – 0.90].31
EF
 T0-0.26 (0.88) – -0.32 [-1.64 – 1.13]-0.09 (0.67) – -0.11 [-1.13 – 1.13].78
 T1 – T0-0.08 (0.59) – -0.03 [-1.55 – 0.85]-0.04 (0.47) – -0.02 [-0.96 – 0.59].92
 T2 – T00.22 (0.51) – 0.22 [-0.85 – 1.18]-0.01 (0.53) – 0.00 [-1.25 – 0.70].40
SA
 T0-1.60 (3.34) – -0.39 [-9.24 – 0.50]-0.21 (1.43) – 0.50 [-3.93 – 0.50].29
 T1 – T00.56 (3.15) – 0.00 [-6.19 – 7.08]0.00 (0.83) – 0.00 [-0.88 – 1.77].27
 T2 – T01.77 (3.29) – 0.00 [-0.88 – 9.73]0.27 (1.25) – 0.00 [-1.77 – 2.65].35
GCF
 T0-0.41 (0.73) – -0.30 [-1.80 – 0.39]-0.11 (0.61) – 0.06 [-1.63 – 0.53].31
 T1 – T00.29 (0.30) – 0.30 [-0.02 – 0.90]0.04 (0.37) – -0.08 [-0.31 – 0.76].04
 T2 – T00.42 (0.38) – 0.42 [-0.26 – 1.17]0.11 (0.30) – 0.04 [-0.22 – 0.68].07
  1. The differences at baseline and in improvement from baseline at T1 and T2 between depression subgroup were evaluated using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test Ws. The table shows the p-values (p) of the comparisons with values below .05 highlighted in bold. ASCS average standardized composite score, CGD control group in depression subgroup, EF executive functioning, EGD experimental group in depression subgroup, GCF generalized cognitive functioning, HAM-D Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, SA spatial awareness