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Table 3 Means (and standard deviations) of the heart rates measured before and after each condition

From: Immersive virtual reality during gait rehabilitation increases walking speed and motivation: a usability evaluation with healthy participants and patients with multiple sclerosis and stroke

  Condition Pre Post Differencea 95% CI of the difference t p
Healthy participants No VR 87 (9) 95 (9) 8 (13) [4, 12] 3.7 .001*
Semi-immersive VR 88 (10) 91 (11) 3 (13) [8, − 1] 1.6 .122
Immersive VR 89 (8) 91 (14) 2 (15) [7, − 3] 0.8 .432
Patients No VR 75 (17) 84 (18) 9 (18) [− 1, 19] 1.9 .082
Semi-immersive VR 74 (17) 77 (23) 3 (18) [− 7, 13] 0.7 .524
Immersive VR 79 (21) 77 (13) − 2 (19) [− 12, 9] -0.3 .747
  1. CI Confidence interval
  2. aDifference = Heart rate post—Heart rate pre
  3. *Significant p-values (p < .05) of main effects are marked with asterisks