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Table 1 Inclusion and exclusion criteria defined in the PICOS framework

From: Getting into a “Flow” state: a systematic review of flow experience in neurological diseases

  Description Inclusion/Exclusion criteria
Population Patients with neurological disease such as stroke, TBI, MS and/or PD The study sample or a substantial number of subjects (minimal 50%) are represented in the study population. The patients had to be adult. Studies with children and/or adolescents were excluded
Intervention Instrumented measurements to assess flow experience in a rehabilitation setting Studies that measured flow using a questionnaire were included. Other ways of measuring flow, such as the Experience-Sample Method or interviews were not included
Comparison No control group or comparison is required Comparison to a clinical test, a control group or the effect of intervention related to flow experience will be reported
Outcome Outcome measured flow experience The studies had to assess the construct Flow with reference to Flow-theory by Csikzentmihalyi. Studies that measured intrinsic motivation or any other construct of motivation or positive psychology were excluded
Study design Peer-reviewed studies are included No restrictions on the type of studies, including case studies, case–control studies, cohort studies, randomized control studies and non/randomized control studies
Articles published in languages other than English were excluded