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Table 2 Mean (SD) estimates of kinematic measures

From: Effect of post-stroke spasticity on voluntary movement of the upper limb

Measure Control Stroke
NC FC CL IL NC FC CL IL
GMM comp 6.00 (0.58) 5.77 (1.01) 5.85 (0.69) 5.47 (1.20) 10.35 (1.16) 11.55 (1.35) 11.48 (1.39) 10.96 (1.38)
HDa 0.39 (0.11) 0.42 (0.11) 0.44 (0.13) 0.42 (0.14) 0.74 (0.17) 0.75 (0.13) 0.76 (0.16) 0.76 (0.14)
BKLDa 1.42 (0.78) 1.78 (1.10) 1.75 (1.11) 2.34 (3.60) 18.40 (16.55) 27.68 (27.60) 33.19 (33.07) 32.74 (32.28)
Log-BKLDa 0.16 (0.73) 0.41 (0.62) 0.3 (0.86) 0.28 (0.95) 2.43 (1.09) 2.80 (1.11) 2.92 (1.23) 2.91 (1.17)
Movement time (s) 0.65 (0.15) 0.68 (0.15) 0.70 (0.16) 0.67 (0.17) 1.64 (0.51) 1.71 (0.56) 1.80 (0.59) 1.67 (0.57)
Final elbow extension angle (°) 80.95 (8.63) 101.58 (12.07) 98.41 (12.48) 100.11 (10.64) 89.34 (40.46) 98.07 (14.59) 96.48 (15.16) 99.98 (13.72)
Mean elbow velocity (°/s) 244.29 (50.44) 224.85 (36.12) 226.13 (41.11) 218.84 (50.82) 89.37 (40.46) 85.99 (36.48) 86.81 (36.26) 80.66 (34.35)
Peak elbow velocity (°/s) 693.00 (151.82) 701.92 (138.08) 707.34 (149.93) 845.02 (166.65) 178.61 (108.08) 185.14 (113.56) 195.16 (109.88) 175.64 (105.12)
Number of elbow velocity peaks (#) 1.83 (0.97) 1.79 (1.12) 1.82 (0.97) 1.83 (1.15) 7.36 (3.36) 7.88 (3.83) 8.43 (3.94) 7.41 (3.62)
  1. aFor the stroke group, stroke–control distances are noted, for the control group control–control distances are noted
  2. NC near-center, FC far-center, CL contralateral, IL ipsilateral, GMM comp. the number of GMM components, HD Hellinger’s distance, BKLD bidirectional Kullback–Leibler divergence