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Table 3 Summary of participant characteristics across all studies

From: Functional electrical stimulation cycling exercise after spinal cord injury: a systematic review of health and fitness-related outcomes

Demographics Total participants: 999
Total men/women/NR: 782/143/74
Mean age reported: 36 ± 8 (20–60) years
Min age reported: 27 ± 9 (16–60) years
Max age reported: 47 ± 10 (20–80) years
Mean TSI reported: 9.0 ± 6.7 (0.04–33) years
Min TSI reported: 4.0 ± 6.6 (0.03–33) years
Max TSI reported: 17.6 ± 12.6 (0.04–53) years
Lesion characteristics Lesion level averaged* (range): C6-T8 (C1-L1)
AIS A: 47 out of 92 studies
AIS B: 30 out of 92 studies
AIS C: 17 out of 92 studies
AIS D: 6 out of 92 studies
AIS NR: 30 out of 92 studies
Training status at baseline No training in FES cycling: 66 out of 92 studies
Trained in FES cycling: 8 out of 92 studies
Training status NR: 18 out of 92 studies
Most frequent exclusion criteria Bone fractures in the trochanter or pelvic area: 22 studies
Presence of severe osteoporosis or similar conditions: 21 studies
Too limited range of motion of hip or knee joints: 20 studies
Not able to cycle due to spasticity: 17 studies
Presence of pressure injuries: 16 studies
  1. Further details on data extraction for each study: https://osf.io/u9mvx/
  2. AIS American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale, NR not reported
  3. *Averaged range calculated using coding for each lesion level