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Table 2 The comparisons between before and after treatment in 4-channel and 2-channel NMES groups

From: Clinical effectiveness of the sequential 4-channel NMES compared with that of the conventional 2-channel NMES for the treatment of dysphagia in a prospective double-blind randomized controlled study

  Pre-treatment vs post-treatment
  4ch NMES participants 2ch NMES participants
  Pre-Tx session Post-Tx session p-value Pre-Tx session Post-Tx session p-value
VDS       
Lip closure 1.0 ± 1.0 0.6 ± 0.9 0.13 0.7 ± 0.9 0.6 ± 0.8 0.58
Bolus formation 3.4 ± 1.1 3.0 ± 0.9 0.08 3.1 ± 1.6 2.3 ± 1.7 0.03
Mastication 3.5 ± 1.5 2.7 ± 2.0 0.07 1.8 ± 1.9 1.6 ± 2.2 0.56
Apraxia 1.1 ± 1.1 0.7 ± 0.8 0.03 1.4 ± 1.1 1.1 ± 1.0 0.10
Tongue to palate contact 4.6 ± 1.8 3.3 ± 2.0 0.03* 2.7 ± 2.1 2.5 ± 1.9 0.66
Premature bolus loss 3.1 ± 1.0 2.3 ± 0.8 0.02* 2.3 ± 1.2 2.2 ± 0.9 0.48
Oral transit time 2.8 ± 0.6 2.3 ± 0.8 0.046* 2.3 ± 1.2 2.5 ± 1.2 0.32
Trigger of pharyngeal swallow 4.3 ± 0.7 3.4 ± 1.5 0.06 3.7 ± 1.1 3.3 ± 1.6 0.16
Vallecular residue 3.6 ± 1.4 2.6 ± 1.1 0.01* 3.2 ± 0.9 2.6 ± 0.8 0.08
Laryngeal elevation 7.9 ± 2.8 7.1 ± 3.0 0.16 7.0 ± 2.4 6.6 ± 2.4 0.32
Pyriform sinus residue 6.9 ± 3.5 6.0 ± 3.9 0.26 5.5 ± 1.9 5.1 ± 1.8 0.32
Coat on the pharyngeal wall 7.9 ± 2.8 6.8 ± 3.0 0.08 6.1 ± 3.0 4.9 ± 3.2 0.08
Pharyngeal transit time 5.0 ± 1.5 5.0 ± 1.5 1.00 4.4 ± 2.5 4.1 ± 2.4 0.56
Aspiration 8.8 ± 3.9 5.3 ± 3.4 0.01* 7.1 ± 4.9 5.1 ± 4.9 0.11
Oral score 19.3 ± 4.5 14.8 ± 4.4 0.003* 14.4 ± 6.8 12.7 ± 6.5 0.029*
Pharyngeal score 44.3 ± 12.7 36.1 ± 11.7 0.005* 36.9 ± 10.7 31.8 ± 11.1 0.018*
Total score 63.7 ± 15.1 50.9 ± 14.4 0.005* 51.4 ± 15.7 44.5 ± 15.8 0.00*
PAS 5.7 ± 2.2 3.6 ± 1.9 0.01* 4.4 ± 2.7 3.4 ± 2.8 0.054
MDADI       
Global 35.0 ± 25.8 45.0 ± 25.8 0.059 44.0 ± 22.7 56.0 ± 22.7 0.131
Emotional 60.6 ± 18.5 69.7 ± 17.0 0.012* 61.3 ± 10.4 71.7 ± 13.4 0.011*
Functional 60.0 ± 18.8 67.7 ± 15.9 0.034* 64.4 ± 14.9 73.2 ± 9.8 0.084
Physical 59.4 ± 14.9 67.3 ± 16.7 0.016* 58.0 ± 7.5 65.3 ± 13.8 0.042*
FOIS 1.8 ± 1.5 3.4 ± 1.4 0.00* 3.4 ± 1.6 3.9 ± 1.8 0.11
Likert scale   3.2 ± 1.2    3.3 ± 0.8  
  1. NMES neuromuscular electrical stimulation, VDS videofluoroscopic dysphagia scale, PAS penetration aspiration scale, MDADI M.D. Anderson dysphagia inventory, FOIS functional oral intake scale
  2. *P < 0.05