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Table 3 The comparison of changes between the 4-channel and 2-channel NMES groups

From: Clinical effectiveness of the sequential 4-channel NMES compared with that of the conventional 2-channel NMES for the treatment of dysphagia in a prospective double-blind randomized controlled study

   4ch NMES 2ch NMES p-value
VDS Lip closure − 0.4 ± 0.9 − 0.2 ± 1.0 0.74
  Bolus formation − 0.4 ± 0.7 − 0.8 ± 1.0 0.38
  Mastication − 0.8 ± 1.4 − 0.2 ± 1.1 0.53
  Apraxia − 0.4 ± 0.5 − 0.3 ± 0.5 0.61
  Tongue to palate contact − 1.3 ± 1.7 − 0.2 ± 0.8 0.12
  Premature bolus loss − 0.8 ± 0.9 − 0.1 ± 0.7 0.08
  Oral transit time − 0.5 ± 0.7 0.1 ± 0.5 0.12
  Trigger of pharyngeal swallow − 0.9 ± 1.5 − 0.4 ± 0.9 0.53
  Vallecular residue − 1.0 ± 1.0 − 0.6 ± 0.9 0.32
  Laryngeal elevation − 0.8 ± 1.8 − 0.4 ± 1.4 0.79
  Pyriform sinus residue − 0.9 ± 2.8 − 0.4 ± 1.4 0.61
  Coat on the pharyngeal wall − 1.1 ± 2.0 − 1.2 ± 2.1 0.93
  Pharyngeal transit time − 0.0 ± 0.0 − 0.3 ± 1.6 0.74
  Aspiration − 3.5 ± 3.3 − 1.9 ± 3.9 0.24
  Oral score − 4.5 ± 3.2 − 1.7 ± 2.0 0.032*
  Pharyngeal score − 8.3 ± 6.8 − 5.2 ± 6.1 0.260
  Total score − 12.7 ± 8.8 − 6.9 ± 6.8 0.044*
PAS   − 2.1 ± 2.0 − 1.0 ± 1.9 0.21
MDADI Global 10.0 ± 18.1 12.0 ± 23.5 0.923
  Emotional 9.2 ± 11.6 10.3 ± 11.3 0.582
  Functional 7.7 ± 11.9 8.8 ± 14.5 0.771
  Physical 7.9 ± 9.2 7.3 ± 10.8 0.821
FOIS   1.6 ± 1.1 0.6 ± 1.0 0.051
Likert scale   3.2 ± 1.2 3.3 ± 0.8 0.786
  1. NMES neuromuscular electrical stimulation, VDS videofluoroscopic dysphagia scale, PAS penetration aspiration scale, MDADI M.D. Anderson dysphagia inventory, FOIS functional oral intake scale
  2. *P < 0.05